Defending against 1.d4

I've tackled this a few years ago (12!?) in a http://exeterchessclub.org.uk/contentlaying-black-against-queens-pawn-op... big document for class C/D players. If that no longer satisfies, perhaps have a browse below:

Choosing a main defence to combat 1.d4/2.c4 depends partly on style, partly on how it fits in with the rest of your repertoire, and partly on how much appetite you and your opponents have for study.nbsp; I've given a list here with how the defence works... on a good day! Remember there will be bad days, where White stifles your play and trundles over your defences.

All example games:

[Event "Baden-Baden"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1925.??.??"]
[Round "11"]
[White "Gruenfeld, Ernst"]
[Black "Marshall, Frank J"]
[Result "1/2-1/2"]
[ECO "D06"]
[PlyCount "51"]
[EventDate "1925.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 d5 2. c4 Nf6 3. Nc3 Bf5 4. cxd5 Nxd5 5. e3 e6 6. Nf3 Bb4 7. Bd2 O-O 8.
Be2 c5 9. a3 Nxc3 10. bxc3 Ba5 11. Qb3 Be4 12. O-O Nc6 13. Rfd1 Qf6 14. Be1 Qg6
15. Qb2 Rac8 16. Rac1 Bd8 17. c4 cxd4 18. exd4 Bf6 19. Bc3 Rfd8 20. d5 Bxc3 21.
Rxc3 exd5 22. cxd5 Rxd5 23. Rxd5 Bxd5 24. Qxb7 Rb8 25. Qc7 Bxf3 26. Rxf3
1/2-1/2

[p]
[Event "Las Palmas"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1982.??.??"]
[Round "12"]
[White "Browne, Walter"]
[Black "Mestel, Jonathan"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D09"]
[PlyCount "100"]
[EventDate "1982.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 d5 2. c4 e5 3. dxe5 d4 4. Nf3 Nc6 5. Nbd2 Bg4 6. g3 Qd7 7. Bg2 O-O-O 8.
O-O h5 9. h3 Nge7 10. Qa4 Ng6 11. Nb3 Kb8 12. Na5 Nxa5 13. Qxa5 Qf5 14. Re1 f6
15. Qb5 c6 16. Qb3 Bc5 17. exf6 gxf6 18. Qd3 Qxd3 19. exd3 Bb4 20. Bd2 Bxf3 21.
Bxb4 Nxh3 22. Bh3 Ng6 23. Bf5 Rhg8 24. Re6 h3 25. Rxf6 Ne5 26. Re1 Ng4 27. Bxg4
Bxg4 28. f3 Bh5 29. g4 Bg6 30. Rd1 Kc7 31. Kf2 b6 32. Bd2 Rdf8 33. Bg5 h3 34.
Kg3 c5 35. Kxh3 Re8 36. Rd2 Kb7 37. Bf4 Ka6 38. Kg3 Re1 39. a3 Ka5 40. Kf2 Rh1
41. Kg2 Rb1 42. Bd6 Ka4 43. Kg3 Kb3 44. f4 Rg1+ 45. Kf2 Rxg4 46. Kf3 Rg1 47. f5
Bh5+ 48. Kf4 Rf1+ 49. Ke4 Re1+ 50. Kf4 Rg4+ 0-1

[p]
[Event "Amber Rapid"]
[Site "Monte Carlo MNC"]
[Date "2005.03.26"]
[Round "7"]
[White "Topalov, V."]
[Black "Morozevich, A."]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D08"]
[WhiteElo "2757"]
[BlackElo "2741"]
[PlyCount "76"]
[EventDate "2005.03.19"]

[p]
1. d4 d5 2. c4 e5 3. dxe5 d4 4. Nf3 Nc6 5. a3 Nge7 6. b4 Ng6 7. Bb2 a5 8. b5
Ncxe5 9. Nxe5 Nxe5 10. e3 Be6 11. Bxd4 Nxc4 12. Qc2 Nd6 13. Bd3 Qg5 14. f4 Qh3+
15. g3 Qh5 16. Nc3 Nf5 17. O-O O-O-O 18. Ba7 Qg4 19. Ne4 Rd7 20. Rfd1 Qf3 21.
Ng5 Nxe3 22. Nxf3 Nxc2 23. Bxc2 b6 24. Ne5 Rxd1+ 25. Rxd1 Bxa3 26. f5 Ba2 27.
Ra1 Bc5+ 28. Kf1 Re8 29. Re1 f6 30. Nd3 Rxe1+ 31. Kxe1 Bd6 32. Nc1 Bd5 33. Bb3
Be4 34. Bxb6 cxb6 35. Be6+ Kc7 36. Ke2 Be5 37. Nd3 Kd6 38. Ke3 Bd5 0-1

[p]
[Event "Amber Blindfold"]
[Site "Monaco MNC"]
[Date "2002.03.23"]
[Round "7"]
[White "Ljubojevic, L."]
[Black "Morozevich, A."]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D07"]
[WhiteElo "2548"]
[BlackElo "2742"]
[PlyCount "104"]
[EventDate "2002.03.16"]

[p]
1. d4 d5 2. c4 Nc6 3. Nc3 dxc4 4. d5 Ne5 5. Qd4 Ng6 6. e4 e5 7. Qxc4 a6 8. Be3
Bd6 9. Nf3 h6 10. h3 Nf6 11. Nd2 O-O 12. b4 Bd7 13. Qb3 Qe7 14. Rb1 b5 15. a3
c6 16. dxc6 Bxc6 17. g3 Qb7 18. Bg2 Ne7 19. O-O Rad8 20. Rfd1 Rfe8 21. Rbc1 Nf5
22. Nd5 Bxd5 23. exd5 e4 24. Nf1 Bf8 25. Qc2 Rxd5 26. Rxd5 Qxd5 27. Qc6 Re6 28.
Qxd5 Nxd5 29. g4 Nfxe3 30. Nxe3 Nf4 31. Rc8 g6 32. Rd8 Kg7 33. Nd5 Nxg2 34. Nc7
Nf4 35. Nxe6+ Nxe6 36. Rd7 Nf4 37. Ra7 Nxh3+ 38. Kf1 Nf4 39. Rxa6 h5 40. gxh5
gxh5 41. Rb6 h3 42. Rxb5 Kg6 43. a4 h3 44. Kg1 Bg7 45. Rb6+ Kf5 46. Rb7 Bd4 47.
Rxf7+ Kg4 48. a5 Nd3 49. a6 Nxf2 50. Rg7+ Bxg7 51. a7 Kg3 52. a8=Q h2+ 0-1

[p]
[Event "Le Touquet"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1992.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Ward, Christopher"]
[Black "Rausis, Igor"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D06"]
[PlyCount "34"]
[EventDate "1992.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 d5 2. c4 Bf5 3. Qb3 e5 4. cxd5 exd4 5. Nf3 Bc5 6. Nxd4 Bxd4 7. Qa4+ Nc6
8. dxc6 b5 9. Qxb5 Ne7 10. e3 Rb8 11. Qe2 O-O 12. Nc3 Nxc6 13. g4 Bxc3+ 14.
bxc3 Be4 15. Rg1 Ne5 16. Bg2 Nd3+ 17. Kf1 Nxc1 0-1

[p]
[Event "USSR"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1952.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Geller, Efim"]
[Black "Smyslov, Vasily"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D18"]
[PlyCount "65"]
[EventDate "1952.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 d5 2. c4 c6 3. Nf3 Nf6 4. Nc3 dxc4 5. a4 Bf5 6. e3 e6 7. Bxc4 Be7 8. O-O
O-O 9. Qe2 c5 10. Rd1 Ne4 11. d5 Nxc3 12. bxc3 exd5 13. Bxd5 Qc7 14. e4 Bg4 15.
h3 Bh5 16. c4 Nc6 17. Bb2 Rfe8 18. Ra3 Rad8 19. g4 Bg6 20. Re3 Nb4 21. e5 Bc2
22. e6 f6 23. Rd2 Bxa4 24. g5 fxg5 25. Be5 Qb6 26. Nxg5 Nxd5 27. cxd5 Qb1+ 28.
Kh2 Bxg5 29. f4 Bh6 30. Rg3 Qf5 31. Qe3 g6 32. Bb2 Rxd5 33. Qc3 0-1

[p]
[Event "?"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1985.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Arkell"]
[Black "Teichmann"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D31"]
[PlyCount "56"]

[p]
1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3 c6 4. Nc3 dxc4 5. a4 Bb4 6. e4 b5 7. Bd2 a5 8. axb5
Bxc3 9. Bxc3 cxb5 10. b3 Bb7 11. d5 Nf6 12. bxc4 b4 13. Bb2 Nxe4 14. Bxg7 Rg8
15. Bd4 exd5 16. cxd5 Qxd5 17. Rc1 Nc6 18. Bc4 Qf5 19. Be3 Nc3 20. Qd2 Rd8 21.
Qb2 Rxg2 22. Rxc3 Qxf3 23. Be2 Qf6 24. Rc2 Qxb2 25. Rxb2 Nd4 26. Rd2 Rg6 27.
Rf1 Nxe2 28. Rxe2 Ba6 0-1

[p]
[Event "Las Palmas, Candidates Match ESP"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1971.??.??"]
[Round "4"]
[White "Uhlmann, W."]
[Black "Larsen, B."]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D47"]
[WhiteElo "2580"]
[BlackElo "2660"]
[PlyCount "76"]
[EventDate "1971.??.??"]

[p]
1. c4 Nf6 2. Nc3 e6 3. Nf3 d5 4. d4 c6 5. e3 Nbd7 6. Bd3 dxc4 7. Bxc4 b5 8. Bd3
Bb7 9. e4 b4 10. Na4 c5 11. e5 Nd5 12. Nxc5 Bxc5 13. dxc5 Qa5 14. Qe2 Nxc5 15.
Bb5+ Kf8 16. O-O h6 17. Be3 Nxe3 18. fxe3 Kg8 19. Rac1 Ne4 20. Bc6 Bxc6 21.
Rxc6 Qxa2 22. Qc2 Ng5 23. Nd4 Qd5 24. Rc5 Qd8 25. Rc7 b3 26. Qc6 Qd5 27. h3
Qxe5 28. Qxa8+ Kh7 29. Qxa7 Qxe3+ 30. Kh2 Rd8 31. Nf3 Qf4+ 32. Kg1 Nxf3+ 33.
Rxf3 Rd1+ 34. Kf2 Qxh3+ 35. g3 Qh2+ 36. Ke3 Qd2+ 37. Ke4 Qd5+ 38. Ke3 Rd3+ 0-1

[p]
[Event "Beograd"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1997.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Kramnik, Vladimir"]
[Black "Anand, Viswanathan"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D43"]
[Annotator "Scherbakov,Ruslan"]
[PlyCount "84"]
[EventDate "1997.??.??"]
[Source "ChessPublishing"]
[SourceDate "2002.02.24"]

[p]
{It is very good for the popularity of the system when super GMs such as
Vladimir Kramnik and Vishy Anand play it. Especially when it is such a
beautiful and exciting game...} 1. Nf3 1... Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 d5 4. d4 c6 5.
Bg5 h6 6. Bh3 dxc4 7. e4 g5 8. Bg3 b5 9. Be2 Bb7 10. e5 $1 10... Nh5 (10... Nd5
{is known to be weaker but maybe it's not so.}) 11. a4 $1 {This move is
connected with a very interesting idea of sacrificing a knight. First white
forces black to play a6 to deprive him of the manoeuvre Na6-c7. The immediate}
(11. Nxg5 {was not good:} 11... Nxg3 12. Nxf7 Kxf7 13. fxg3 Kg8 14. O-O 14...
Na6 $1 {with the idea of Nc7}) (11. O-O {has been played before but white
achieved nothing in the game Piket - Dreev, Groningen 1991:} 11... Nd7 12. a4
a6 13. Kh1 {here} (13. Nxg5 $2 {
is impossible because white has castled already:} 13... Nxg3 14. Nxf7 Nxe2+)
13... Ng7 14. Ne4 Nf5 15. Nfd2 15... Qb6 {with excellent play.}) 11... a6 12.
Nxg5 $1 12... Nxg3 13. Nxf7 Kxf7 14. fxg3 {This was white's idea. Black's king
is in trouble and black has also difficulty in activating his forces; he has
no time for this because he must cover the weak squares in his camp.} 14... Kg8
$1 {Escaping to the queen side takes too much time:} (14... Nd7 $2 {due to} 15.
Bh5+ $1 15... Ke7 (15... Kg8 $4 16. Qg4+ {
(that's why black had to play Kg8 first)} 16... Qg5 17. Qxe6+ $18 {winning}) (
15... Kg7 16. O-O $1) 16. O-O Nxe5 17. dxe5 Qxd1 18. Raxd1 Rh7 19. Ne4 $18 {
and black is lost.(Anand)}) (14... Ke8 $6 15. O-O Kd7 16. Rf7+ Be7 17. Bg4 Kc7
18. Bxe6 Rf8 19. Rg7 Kb6 20. d5 $16 {with a big advantage (Anand)}) 15. O-O Nd7
16. Bg4 {Better than} (16. Bh5 Rh7 17. Qg4+ 17... Qg5 {(Anand)}) 16... Qe7 17.
Ne4 17... Rh7 {A tough defence; the sharp attempt} (17... c5 {was not better.}
18. Nd6 18... Bd5 {after} (18... cxd4 {white wins by} 19. Rf7 $1 {(Kramnik)} (
19. Nxb7 19... Nxe5 $1 $13 {unclear}) 19... Qxf7 20. Nxf7 Kxf7 21. Bf3 $1 21...
Bd5 22. Bxd5 exd5 23. Qf3+ Ke6 24. Rf1 $18 {winning}) 19. Bf3 $1 19... Bg7 (
19... cxd4 20. Bxd5 exd5 21. Qg4+ 21... Bg7 $8 22. Rf7 $16 {
with a clear advantage}) 20. Nf5 $1 $16 {but not} (20. Bxd5 exd5 21. Nf5 Qe6
22. Qg4 Rh7)) 18. Nd6 18... Rb8 {The critical moment of the game. The white
position looks very strong. All black's pieces are passive but white should
not forget he is a whole piece down.} 19. b4 $2 {
It was the time for a more materialistic approach:} (19. axb5 cxb5 20. Nxb7
Rxb7 21. Rxa6 Rb6 22. Rxb6 Nxb6 23. Rf6 {
with a clear advantage as the e6 pawn falls. Possible then is} 23... Kh8 (23...
Qd8 {was not better:} 24. Bxe6+ Kh8 25. Qg4 {surprisingly all these moves were
played some months later in the game Ward - Grabljauskas, Copenhagen 1998 when
the game Kramnik - Anand was known to almost everybody. Black lost in some
moves after} (25. Qf3 $5) 25... Bg7 26. Rf7 $18 {winning}) 24. Bxe6 $1 24...
Bg7 25. Rg6 $16 {with advantage-Anand}) 19... h5 $1 {If white were given time
to play Bh5 even the genius Anand could hardly find anything to do.} 20. Bh3 $6
{or to take the pawn with} (20. Bf3 h3 21. g4 21... Bh6 $15 {black has the edge
}) (20. Bxh5 {after which black should play} 20... Qg5 $13 {
with Bd6 next-unclear (Anand).}) 20... Bh6 $1 {
The first black piece is activated!} 21. Kh1 21... Bg5 {That was the idea: the
bishop is covering the square f6 and the knight can go to f8 taking control of
some other important squares.} 22. Qc2 {After} (22. Ra3 {
black could open up the game anyway:} 22... c5 $1 23. bxc5 23... Bd5 {Anand})
22... Rg7 23. Qe2 23... Ba8 $1 {But not} (23... Rh7 $2 {because of} 24. Qe4 $1
$16 {with the edge -Anand}) 24. Qxh5 Rf8 25. Ne4 c5 26. Nxg5 26... Bd5 $3 {
This excellent move had to be foreseen by Anand some moves ago otherwise black
is in trouble:} (26... Rxg5 27. Bxe6+ Kg7 28. Qh3 $1 $16 {with the advantage}
28... cxd4 29. Bxd7 Rxf1+ 30. Rxf1 Rxe5 31. Qxd4 $18 {winning-Anand}) 27. Nf3
$2 {He had to try} (27. Bxe6+ $1 27... Bxe6 28. Rxf8+ Nxf8 29. Ne4 Rh7 30. Qd1
{but after} (30. Qe2 30... cxd4 $17 {with a slight edge for black}) 30... Rxh2+
$1 31. Kxh2 Qh7+ 32. Kg1 32... Qxe4 $17 {black has a clear advantage.}) 27...
cxb4 28. axb5 axb5 29. Nh3 29... Qg5 $1 30. Rxf8+ Nxf8 31. Qe8 31... Rf7 {
To prevent Rf1. It is remarkable that the white minor pieces which were so
dominating some moves ago are dragging out a miserable existence now.} 32. Nf3
32... Qg6 {
Black plays carefully not giving any chance for counterplay, inaccurate was} (
32... Qe3 $2 33. Bg4 $1) 33. Qxb5 b3 34. Rf1 Qd3 35. Kg1 Qe3+ 36. Kh1 36... c3
{As Anand said after the game he did not see that} (36... Rb7 $4 {loses after}
37. Bxe6+ $1 $18 {
but his great intuition serves him well during the whole game.}) 37. Bxe6 $1 {
Otherwise white is just hopelessly lost.} 37... Bxe6 38. d5 38... Rxf3 $1 {
The simplest.} 39. gxf3 (39. Rxf3 39... c2 $19 {winning} 40. Qf1 Qxf3 41. gxf3
41... b2 {Anand}) 39... Bh3 40. Qc4 Bxf1 41. Qg4+ Kh7 42. e6 42... Ng6 {
White resigned. A brilliant game where both players were very creative. Thanks
Vladimir for your excellent idea which puts 10. ..Nh5 under pressure.Generally 
I think his mistake at the critical moment would have succeeded against
another opponent, but unfortunately it was Anand who found a very unexpected
refutation which was very hard to foresee, taking into account that white had
a very wide choise of possible continuations to consider.} 0-1

[p]
[Event "Budapest Tungsram"]
[Site "Budapest"]
[Date "1978.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Vadasz, Laszlo"]
[Black "Nunn, John DM"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D34"]
[WhiteElo "2505"]
[BlackElo "2440"]
[PlyCount "54"]
[EventDate "1978.08.??"]
[Source "ChessBase"]
[SourceDate "1999.07.01"]

[p]
1. Nf3 d5 2. c4 e6 3. g3 c5 4. Bg2 Nc6 5. O-O Nf6 6. cxd5 exd5 7. d4 Be7 8. Nc3
O-O 9. Bg5 cxd4 10. Nxd4 h6 11. Be3 Re8 12. Nxc6 bxc6 13. Qa4 Bd7 14. Qc2 Qc8
15. Rfd1 Bh3 16. Bh1 Ng4 17. Bd2 Qe6 18. Be1 Rad8 19. e4 Qf6 20. exd5 Ne3 21.
Qa4 Nxd1 22. Rxd1 cxd5 23. Nxd5 Qe6 24. Ba5 Bc5 25. Qc2 Bb6 26. Nxb6 Qf5 27.
Rxd8 Rxd8 0-1

[p]
[Event "Nuremberg"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1905.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Marshall, Frank J"]
[Black "Tarrasch, Siegbert"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D51"]
[PlyCount "88"]
[EventDate "1905.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. Bg5 Nbd7 5. e3 c6 6. Qc2 Qa5 7. cxd5 Nxd5 8.
Nf3 Bb4 9. Kd2 c5 10. a3 Bxc3+ 11. bxc3 cxd4 12. exd4 N7b6 13. Bd3 Bd7 14. Rhc1
Rc8 15. Qb3 O-O 16. Ke2 Rxc3 17. Rxc3 Qxc3 18. Qb1 h6 19. Bd2 Qc7 20. Kf1 Nc4
21. Bc1 Ba4 22. Qa2 Rc8 23. Qe2 Nc3 24. Qe1 Na5 25. Bxh6 Nb3 26. Bd2 Nxa1 27.
Qxa1 Bb5 28. Bxb5 Nxb5 29. g3 Qc6 30. Kg2 Rd8 31. Be3 Qe4 32. Qb2 Rd5 33. a4
Nd6 34. Bf4 Nf5 35. Be3 Nxe3+ 36. fxe3 Qxe3 37. g4 f5 38. g5 Qe4 39. Qc3 f4 40.
Qc8+ Kh7 41. Qc3 e5 42. h3 Rxd4 43. g6+ Kh6 44. Kh2 Qe2+ 0-1

[p]
[Event "Buenos Aires"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1927.??.??"]
[Round "21"]
[White "Capablanca, Jose"]
[Black "Alekhine, Alexander"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D63"]
[PlyCount "64"]
[EventDate "1927.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. Bg5 Nbd7 5. e3 Be7 6. Nf3 O-O 7. Rc1 a6 8. a3
h6 9. Bh3 dxc4 10. Bxc4 b5 11. Be2 Bb7 12. O-O c5 13. dxc5 Nxc5 14. Nd4 Rc8 15.
b4 Ncd7 16. Bg3 Nb6 17. Qb3 Nfd5 18. Bf3 Rc4 19. Ne4 Qc8 20. Rxc4 Nxc4 21. Rc1
Qa8 22. Nc3 Rc8 23. Nxd5 Bxd5 24. Bxd5 Qxd5 25. a4 Bf6 26. Nf3 Bb2 27. Re1 Rd8
28. axb5 axb5 29. h3 e5 30. Rb1 e4 31. Nd4 Bxd4 32. Rd1 Nxe3 0-1

[p]
[Event "Thessaloniki ol"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1988.??.??"]
[Round "9"]
[White "Andersson, Ulf"]
[Black "Short, Nigel"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D58"]
[PlyCount "74"]
[EventDate "1988.??.??"]

[p]
1. Nf3 d5 2. d4 Nf6 3. c4 e6 4. Nc3 Be7 5. Bg5 h6 6. Bh3 O-O 7. e3 b6 8. Rc1
Bb7 9. a3 Nbd7 10. cxd5 exd5 11. Be2 c5 12. O-O Ne4 13. Bxe7 Qxe7 14. dxc5 Nxc3
15. Rxc3 bxc5 16. Qc2 Rab8 17. Rc1 Ba8 18. b3 Rfe8 19. Bf1 Qd6 20. Qd1 Red8 21.
Nd2 d4 22. Nc4 Qf6 23. Rd3 Nf8 24. b4 dxe3 25. Nxe3 cxb4 26. axb4 Rxd3 27. Qxd3
Rxb4 28. Rc8 Bb7 29. Nd5 Bxd5 30. Qxd5 Qe7 31. g3 g6 32. Qc6 Rd4 33. Qc3 Rd1
34. Qc4 a5 35. Ra8 Qb4 36. Qa6 Kg7 37. Qe2 Rc1 0-1

[p]
[Event "Islington"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1974.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Goodman"]
[Black "Miles"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "A50"]
[PlyCount "36"]
[EventDate "1974.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 e6 2. c4 b6 3. a3 Nf6 4. Nc3 Bb7 5. d5 Bd6 6. Nf3 O-O 7. g3 Ba6 8. e3 Qe7
9. Be2 exd5 10. cxd5 Ne4 11. O-O Nxc3 12. bxc3 Qe4 13. Bxa6 Nxa6 14. Ne1 Nc5
15. f3 Qc4 16. e4 f5 17. exf5 Rxf5 18. Qc2 Re5 0-1

[p]
[Event "Columbus,OH"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1977.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Pamiljens, J."]
[Black "Seirawan, Yasser"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "B06"]
[PlyCount "68"]
[EventDate "1977.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 g6 2. e4 Bg7 3. Nf3 d6 4. c4 Bg4 5. Be2 Nc6 6. Be3 e5 7. d5 Bxf3 8. Bxf3
Nd4 9. Nc3 c5 10. Rb1 Ne7 11. g4 O-O 12. h3 a6 13. h5 b5 14. Be2 Rb8 15. cxb5
axb5 16. Qd2 b4 17. Nd1 Ra8 18. Bh6 Rxa2 19. Bxg7 Kxg7 20. hxg6 Nxg6 21. Qh6+
Kf6 22. Bc4 b3 23. Rh5 Qa5+ 24. Kf1 Ke7 25. Qg5+ Ke8 26. Qf6 Ra1 27. Rxa1 Qxa1
28. Ke1 Qc1 29. Be2 Nxe2 30. Qxd6 Nd4 31. Qb8+ Ke7 32. Qc7+ Kf6 33. Qd6+ Kg7
34. g5 Nc2+ 0-1

[p]
[Event "rooks on ranks and files"]
[Site "rooks on ranks and files"]
[Date "1994.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Whiteley"]
[Black "Agnos"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "A52"]
[PlyCount "48"]

[p]
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e5 3. dxe5 Ng4 4. Nf3 Bc5 5. e3 Nc6 6. Be2 O-O 7. O-O Ncxe5 8.
Nxe5 Nxe5 9. Nc3 Re8 10. b3 a5 11. Bb2 11... Ra6 {
#  "A hacker's paradise" - CHESS magazine} 12. Ne4 Ba7 13. Qd5 13... Rae6 {
#  The Rook pauses to support the Knight on the half-open e-file} 14. Qxa5 Bb6
15. Qc3 Qh3 16. f4 16... Rh6 {
#  We all knew that's where it really wanted to go.} 17. h3 d5 18. Ng5 Qg3 19.
c5 Bxh3 20. Nxh3 Rxh3 21. Qe1 Qh2+ 22. Kf2 22... Bxc5 {#  Resigns 0-1} 23. Bd4
Qxf4+ 24. exf4 Bxd4# 1-0

[p]
[Event "Paignton op"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1994.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Wheeler, J."]
[Black "Arkell, Keith"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "E10"]
[PlyCount "60"]
[EventDate "1994.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3 c5 4. d5 b5 5. dxe6 fxe6 6. cxb5 d5 7. g3 Bd6 8. Bg2
O-O 9. O-O Bb7 10. Bg5 h6 11. Bxf6 Qxf6 12. Qc2 Nd7 13. e4 a6 14. b6 Rab8 15.
Nc3 d4 16. Na4 Bc6 17. b4 c4 18. Nc5 Nxb6 19. Nd2 d3 20. Qd1 Rbc8 21. a4 c3 22.
Ndb3 d2 23. Qe2 Nxa4 24. Qxa6 Bxc5 25. bxc5 Nxc5 26. Nxc5 Ra8 27. Qxc6 Rxa1 28.
Rxa1 c2 29. e5 d1=Q+ 30. Bf1 Qxf2+ 0-1

[p]
[Event "10th Monarch Assurance"]
[Site "Port Erin IOM"]
[Date "2001.09.30"]
[Round "2"]
[White "Gallagher, Jo"]
[Black "Williams, S."]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "A96"]
[WhiteElo "2516"]
[BlackElo "2369"]
[PlyCount "70"]
[EventDate "2001.09.29"]
[Source "Mark Crowther"]
[SourceDate "2001.10.08"]

[p]
1. d4 f5 2. g3 Nf6 3. Bg2 e6 4. Nf3 Be7 5. O-O O-O 6. c4 d6 7. Nc3 a5 8. Re1
Ne4 9. Qc2 Nxc3 10. Qxc3 Nc6 11. e4 e5 12. exf5 Bxf5 13. Be3 Be4 14. Nd2 Bxg2
15. Kxg2 d5 16. a3 Bf6 17. Nf3 exd4 18. Nxd4 Qd7 19. Rad1 Ne5 20. c5 Nf3 21.
Rf1 Qg4 22. Qd3 Bxd4 23. Bxd4 Nh3+ 24. Kh1 Nf3 25. Kg2 c6 26. h3 Qe6 27. Be3 g5
28. Bd4 Rae8 29. b4 axb4 30. axb4 Qd7 31. Ba1 Qe6 32. Rc1 d4 33. Rfd1 Rf7 34.
Qc4 Qe4 35. Kf1 Nd2+ 0-1

[p]
[Event "Erevan"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1954.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Lilienthal, Andre"]
[Black "Kortchnoi, Victor"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D89"]
[PlyCount "64"]
[EventDate "1954.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 d5 4. cxd5 Nxd5 5. e4 Nxc3 6. bxc3 Bg7 7. Bc4 c5 8.
Ne2 cxd4 9. cxd4 Nc6 10. Be3 O-O 11. O-O Bg4 12. f3 Na5 13. Bd3 Be6 14. Rc1
Bxa2 15. d5 Bb3 16. Qd2 a6 17. Qb4 b5 18. Nd4 Bc4 19. Bxc4 Bxd4 20. Bxd4 Nxc4
21. f4 Qd7 22. f5 f6 23. Rf3 Rf7 24. fxg6 hxg6 25. Rg3 e5 26. Bc5 Kg7 27. Qe1
Rc8 28. Bb4 a5 29. Bxa5 Nxa5 30. Rxc8 Qxc8 31. Qxa5 Qc1+ 32. Kf2 Rc7 0-1

[p]
[Event "USA"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1968.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Kaufman, L."]
[Black "Benko, Pal"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "A58"]
[PlyCount "92"]
[EventDate "1968.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 c5 3. d5 b5 4. cxb5 a6 5. e3 g6 6. Nc3 Bg7 7. bxa6 O-O 8. Nf3
d6 9. e4 Qa5 10. Nd2 Bxa6 11. Bxa6 Qxa6 12. Qe2 Nfd7 13. Nc4 f5 14. f3 fxe4 15.
fxe4 Nb6 16. Nxb6 Qxb6 17. Rf1 Nd7 18. Rxf8+ Rxf8 19. Be3 Rb8 20. Nd1 Ne5 21.
Kf1 Qb4 22. Bd2 Rf8+ 23. Kg1 Qd4+ 24. Be3 Qxe4 25. Nc3 Qc4 26. Rf1 Rb8 27. Bc1
Qxe2 28. Nxe2 Nd3 29. b3 Nb4 30. Bg5 Nxd5 31. Rd1 e6 32. Nf4 Bd4+ 33. Kh1 Nc3
34. Rf1 Rf8 35. Re1 e5 36. Ne6 Rf2 37. Bh3 Rxa2 38. Rf1 Ra8 39. Bd8 Bf2 40. g3
Ra2 41. Kg2 Ne4 42. Kf3 d5 43. Rd1 Bd4 44. Nxd4 cxd4 45. Re1 Rf2+ 46. Kg4 Rxh2
0-1

[p]
[Event "Wiesbaden"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1981.??.??"]
[Round "4"]
[White "Soos, Bela"]
[Black "Nunn, John"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "E84"]
[PlyCount "86"]
[EventDate "1981.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. e4 d6 5. Nge2 O-O 6. f3 a6 7. Be3 Nc6 8. Qd2
Rb8 9. Rc1 Bd7 10. g3 b5 11. cxb5 axb5 12. Bg2 Qc8 13. O-O Qa6 14. b3 Rfc8 15.
h3 b4 16. Nd1 Na5 17. Nf2 Bb5 18. Rfe1 Nd7 19. Nf4 e6 20. Qxb4 c5 21. dxc5 dxc5
22. Qd2 c4 23. Bf1 Ne5 24. Kg2 Rd8 25. Qc2 cxb3 26. Bxb5 Qxb5 27. axb3 Nxb3 28.
Rb1 Qa4 29. N4d3 Nxf3 30. Red1 Nfd4 31. Qc7 Rdc8 32. Qe7 Rd8 33. Qh3 Nc2 34.
Bh6 Bh8 35. Qf4 e5 36. Qh3 Qc6 37. Kh2 Nbd4 38. Kg2 Nf5 39. Qg5 Nce3+ 40. Kg1
Nxd1 41. Rxb8 Rxb8 42. exf5 Nxf2 43. Nxf2 Qf3 0-1

[p]
[Event "lessons in KID: 2 - Black's K-"]
[Site "lessons in KID: 2 - Black's K"]
[Date "1970.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Kortchnoi, Viktor"]
[Black "Fischer, Robert J (blitz)"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "E97"]
[PlyCount "62"]

[p]
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. e4 d6 5. Be2 O-O 6. Nf3 e5 7. O-O Nc6 8. d5
Ne7 9. Nd2 c5 10. a3 Ne8 11. b4 b6 12. Rb1 f5 13. f3 f4 14. a4 14... g5 {
#  Each side has their own private arena for action.} 15. a5 Rf6 16. bxc5 bxc5
17. Nb3 Rg6 18. Bd2 Nf6 19. Kh1 g4 20. fxg4 Nxg4 21. Rf3 Rh6 22. h3 Ng6 23. Kg1
23... Nf6 {#} 24. Be1 24... Nh8 {The real Grandmaster touch.} 25. Rd3 Nf7 26.
Bf3 Ng5 27. Qe2 Rg6 28. Kf1 Nxh3 29. gxh3 Bxh3+ 30. Kf2 Ng4+ 31. Bxg4 31...
Bxg4 {It's easy to see the appeal of the KID after such a game.} 0-1

[p]
[Event "corr SWE/M"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1987.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Svensson"]
[Black "Andersson"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "E15"]
[PlyCount "50"]
[EventDate "1987.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3 b6 4. g3 Ba6 5. Qa4 Bb7 6. Bg2 c5 7. O-O cxd4 8. Nxd4
Bxg2 9. Kxg2 Be7 10. Rd1 Qc8 11. Nd2 O-O 12. Qc2 a6 13. b3 Ra7 14. Bb2 Rc7 15.
Rac1 Qb7+ 16. Kg1 d6 17. N4f3 Nbd7 18. Qb1 Rfc8 19. e4 b5 20. e5 dxe5 21. Nxe5
Bb4 22. Nxd7 Rxd7 23. Nf1 Rxd1 24. Rxd1 Ne4 25. cxb5 Ng5 0-1

[p]
[Event "England"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1978.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "O'Kelly de Galway, Alberic"]
[Black "Miles, Anthony"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "E15"]
[PlyCount "50"]
[EventDate "1978.??.??"]

[p]
1. c4 b6 2. d4 e6 3. Nf3 Nf6 4. g3 Ba6 5. b3 Bb4+ 6. Bd2 Be7 7. Bg2 c6 8. O-O
d5 9. Nc3 O-O 10. cxd5 cxd5 11. Qb1 Nc6 12. a3 Rc8 13. Rc1 Re8 14. e3 h6 15.
Qb2 Bd6 16. b4 Bd3 17. Ne1 Bc4 18. Bf1 Bxf1 19. Kxf1 e5 20. Nb5 exd4 21. Nxd4
Nxd4 22. exd4 Qd7 23. Rxc8 Qxc8 24. Kg2 Re2 25. Nf3 Ng4 0-1

[p]
[Event "Havana"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1966.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Petersen"]
[Black "Kavalek, Lubomir"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "A55"]
[PlyCount "80"]
[EventDate "1966.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 d6 3. Nf3 Nbd7 4. Nc3 e5 5. e4 c6 6. Be2 Be7 7. O-O O-O 8. Re1
a6 9. Rb1 b5 10. b4 Bb7 11. Bg5 h6 12. Bh3 Nh7 13. Bg3 Ng5 14. dxe5 Nxf3+ 15.
Bxf3 Nxe5 16. cxb5 axb5 17. Be2 Bf6 18. Qc2 Ra3 19. Rb3 Rxb3 20. Qxb3 Bc8 21.
f4 Ng4 22. Bxg4 Bxg4 23. Bf2 Be6 24. Qc2 Qa8 25. Rd1 Qa3 26. Bd4 Bxd4+ 27. Rxd4
c5 28. bxc5 dxc5 29. Rd3 Bc4 30. Rd2 Ra8 31. e5 b4 32. Nd1 Qxa2 33. Nb2 Ba6 34.
Qxc5 Qb1+ 35. Nd1 Bb7 36. Qd4 g6 37. Kf2 Ra2 38. Nb2 Qf5 39. Qd8+ Kh7 40. Ke3
Qe4+ 0-1

[p]
[Event "Carlsbad"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1929.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Mattison, Herman"]
[Black "Nimzowitsch, Aaron"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "E21"]
[PlyCount "54"]
[EventDate "1929.??.??"]

[p]
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Bb4 4. Nf3 Bxc3+ 5. bxc3 d6 6. Qc2 Qe7 7. Ba3 c5 8.
g3 b6 9. Bg2 Bb7 10. O-O O-O 11. Nh3 Bxg2 12. Kxg2 Qb7+ 13. Kg1 Qa6 14. Qb3 Nc6
15. Rfd1 Na5 16. Qb5 Qxb5 17. cxb5 Nc4 18. Bc1 a6 19. bxa6 Rxa6 20. dxc5 bxc5
21. Ng2 Nd5 22. Rd3 Rfa8 23. e4 Ne5 24. Rd1 Nxc3 25. Rf1 Rxa2 26. Rxa2 Nf3+ 27.
Kh1 Rxa2 0-1

[p]

Click [...] to see list of games

Queen's Gambit Accepted

Black gives up the centre hoping to achieve an open, fighting game; although it's one of the oldest defences, it is still being developed at the top level.

Declined:

Marshall Variation

An unusual variation that should give White a plus with best play (viz. 1.d4 d5 2.c4 Nf6 3.cxd5 Nxd5 4.Nf3! and 5.e4).

Example game: Gruenfeld E. - Marshall F. [D06]

Albin Gambit

A classic gambit played for central domination; there has been more interest recently due to Morozevich experimenting with 5...Nge7.

Example game: Browne W. - Mestel J. [D08]

Tchigorin Variation

A combative variation emphasising piece play also revived by super-GM Morozevich.

Example game: Ljubojevic L. - Morozevich A. [D07]

Example game: Topalov V. - Morozevich A. [D08]

Baltic Variation

A trappy variation that needs some study by both sides.

Example game: Ward C. - Rausis I. [D06]

Slav Defence

In its classic form, it has the same hypermodern 'give up the centre and restrain' feel as contemporary lines of the Queen's Gambit Accepted. These days the fashion is for 4...a6.

Example game: Geller E. - Smyslov V. [D19]

Semi-Slav: Noteboom

A waltz on the edge of a cliff: don't look down!nbsp; Every time Black gets a chance, he pushes a passed pawn...

Example game: Arkell - Teichmann [D31]

Semi-Slav: Meran

A complex line with plenty of theory that has a special band of followers.

Example game: Uhlmann W. - Larsen B. [D47]

Semi-Slav: Botvinnik

A principled attempt to win the point by force; fantastically complicated.

Kramnik V. - Anand V. [D43]

A brilliant game where both players were very creative. Thanks Vladimir for your excellent idea which puts 10. ..Nh5 under pressure.nbsp; Generally I think his mistake at the critical moment would have succeeded against another opponent, but unfortunately it was Anand who found a very unexpected refutation which was very hard to foresee, taking into account that white had a very wide choice of possible continuations to consider. Scherbakov

Tarrasch Defence

An uncompromising defence securing active piece play at the cost of some loose squares.

Example game: Vadasz L. - Nunn J. [D34]

Cambridge Springs Variation

A vigorous attempt at counter-play, perhaps too well known these days for White to stumble into without having some ideas of their own.

Example game: Marshall F. - Tarrasch S. [D51]

Swiss Defence

A half-forgotten defence recommended by Tony Dempsey that does very well against natural play by White.

Example game: Capablanca J. - Alekhin A. [D63]

Tartakower Variation

The banker for Grandmasters: a solid variation that still allows you to play for a win, often with hanging pawns.

Example game: Andersson U. - Short N. [D59]

Indian Defences

Black does not claim a central stake straight away, but aims to control or counter-attack White's centre pawns.nbsp; They can be thought of as grouped into light-square defences (Nimzo-Indian, Queen's Indian, Dutch) and dark-square defences (Benkö, Benoni, King's-Indian); ideas and variations flow within each group.

English Defence

pWhite is tempted to blot out the cheeky black Bishop; I fear a lot of the fun goes out of Black's game after 3.a3, but Miles is undaunted:

Example game: Goodman - Miles [A40]

Modern Defence

A hypermodern system where Black reserves their options until White has committed to a set-up.

Example game: Pamiljens J. - Seirawan Y. [A41]

Budapest Gambit

A popular line among club players, which concedes some squares in the centre and goes for active play.

Example game: Whiteley - Agnos [A52]

Blumenfeld Gambit

An ancient gambit that occasionally has a new lease of life;nbsp; 5.Bg5 leaves Black loose and underdeveloped.

Example game: Wheeler J. - Arkell K. [E10]

Dutch Defence

An unbalanced continuation with a range of contrasting systems in it; White has some annoying ways to avoid the main lines, so many French players sidle into it with 1...e6.nbsp; You can play it with e6/d6, with e6/d5, or d6/g6.

Example game: Gallagher J. - Williams S. [A97]

Grünfeld Defence

A hypermodern defence that goes for active piece play and central counterattack.nbsp; Watch how White's big centre is destroyed and Black takes over.

Example game: Lilienthal A. - Kortchnoi V. [D89]

Benkö Gambit

An unusual gambit where Black gets long-term pressure, even into the endgame.nbsp; As Black can play the main variations almost on autopilot, White has developed some sharper ways of taking on Black's opening.

Example game: Kaufman L. - Benko P. [A57]

Benoni Defence

The Modern Benoni with ...e6xd5 is a fighting defence that looks for chances on the wings to counteract White's extra central pawn. There is an argument for delaying the capture, and it has some ancient relatives that omit ...e6 altogether.

Example game: Malich B. - Nunn J. [A70]

King's Indian Defence

An elastic system with a lot of sharp theory, distrusted by the super-GMs but with a dedicated following elsewhere.

Example game: Kortchnoi V. - Fischer R. [E97]

Old Indian Defence

An unpretentious and solid defence.

Example game: Petersen - Kavalek L. [A55]

Bogo-Indian Defence

pAnother unambitious system that doesn't take on too many responsibilities.

Example game: Nikolic P. - Andersson U. [E11]

Queen's Indian Defence

A solid defence that has been thoroughly tested in all variations.

Example game: O'Kelly de Galway A. - Miles A. [E15]

Nimzo-Indian Defence

The Queen's-side Ruy Lopez: a subtle molten mixture of piece and pawn play to contest the centre.

Example game: Mattison H. - Nimzowitsch A. [E21]

Notes

My recommendations for junior and club players usually run to:
    [li] Swiss Defence [li] Cambridge Springs [li] Tarrasch Defence [li] Noteboom

If you want to avoid 1...d5 for some reason, then I suggest:

    [li]Benkö Gambit [li]Nimzo-Indian

None of these variations can be forced; for example, nearly all the fancy defences to the Queen's Gambit can be avoided by playing c4xd5 at some early point, and nearly all the Indian defences can be avoided by the Trompowsky (2.Bg5).

You also need to have something to play against all the systems without 2.c4 like the Colle, London, Stonewall and Blackmar-Diemer, not to mention the English and Réti Openings.nbsp; There's more stuff around on each of these somewhere:

http://exeterchessclub.org.uk/content/custers-last-stand http://exeterchessclub.org.uk/content/ideas-behind-english-opening#B._Pl....

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