The Secret of Not Losing

With my newly published plumetting grading, it is clear that I haven't yet got the hang of this... Anyhow, in the Introductory Session in June this year, I asked everyone to name the three main reasons you lose chess games. These turned out to be:


  • Moving rather than taking more time
  • Poor psychology: making mistakes and then making worse ones
  • Letting my opponent off when I was ahead on material with a better position


  • I fail to win with an extra piece:
    • Watson C. - Regis D. [A40]
  • I manage to lose with the exchange:

    General advice:

    This is a list of symptoms, not diseases. The disease may be... relaxing? ...wishful thinking? But it needs a good hard look at yourself to find the disease, which may be a long step towards curing it. Why are you making these mistakes, what are you doing that is wrong, what are you not doing that would be right? Is there a point you can identify in a game where you chose a wrong move or plan, and can you recall what you were thinking or saying to yourself at the time?

    Further study:

    Try WEBB: Chess for Tigers

    • Regis D. - Seipel H. [D14]


  • EXAMPLE GAMES for analysis and playing out:

    • Blunders -- mainly after 1 hour+ -- due, I suspect, to lack of recent practice
    • Careless loss of material
    • Miscalculation (poor vision)
    • Playing a middlegame sequence in the wrong order
    • Running out of time
  • Positions for analyis:
    • britton - nunn i. [B06]
    • polugaevsky - nunn [A77]
  • Positions for playing out:

    General advice:

    [This set of symptoms may be related to themes in the last and the next category.]

    I struggle with this issue constantly myself; I expect I do best when I practice, with slow games against real people, and faster games against computers who of course are utterly unforgiving of errors...

    The main thing to do with blunders is to look: make the first and last thing you think about be, what are they threatening? and having chosen a move, what do they threaten now?  You might have a look at some of the thinking schemes laid out by Purdy and Silman, reviewed in last year's programme: 17th July 2007: A thinking process

    The other thing I think makes a difference is getting a tournament in early in the season, so I'm up to speed when I take on the less frequent club and county games. There aren't very many books which particularly focus on analysis (as opposed to the 'spot the bonecrusher' tactics books); Dvoretsky recommends 'playing-out' positions chosen from fiendishly complicated games, and points to a couple from Nunn.

    Further study:

    KOTOV: Think like a Grandmaster

    NUNN/GRIFFITHS: Secrets of Grandmaster Play

    JACOBS: Analyse to win

    Simon I know likes flexing his analytical muscles against the deceptively simple-looking compositions of endgame studies.

    • borkowski - nunn (NUNN&GRIFFITHS/DVORET [B09]
    • corden - nunn b. [C55]
  • John Nunn's favourite study: a whole-board tactics workout!One naturalistic approach is found in the 'How Good is Your Chess' features in Chess magazine, where you are thrown a sequence of strategic and analytical decisions, rather like a real game.  Dvoretsky's famous Secrets of Chess Tactics throws you a succession of problems and exercises in a rather unstructured way; you might find some of the examples too chewy.
    • RB - BB

Further study:

TROITZKY: 360 Brilliant and Instructive End Games

BARDEN: How Good Is Your Chess

KING: How Good Is Your Chess

DVORETSKY: Secrets of Chess Tactics


EXAMPLE GAME: Short-Belyavsky (Helpmate in 2)

General advice:

In a sense, if you could cure this problem, itwould be impossible to lose a game of chess.  Underestimating your opponent or their resources is really the only mistake we ever make... So this is going to be a tricky one to solve!

However, there are some useful routines to get into.  A junior player might do well just to say to themselves as the FIRST and LAST thing they think about when it's their turn: "What can my opponent do to me now? What can they do to me if I make this move?"  Adults might have a look at some of the thinking schemes laid out by Purdy and Silman, reviewed in last year's programme: 17th July 2007: A thinking process

Further study:

Try PURDY: The Search for Chess Perfection

or SILMAN: Reassess your chess


EXAMPLE GAME: Pope (not that one) -Regis

  • Moving without working out what my opponent can do in reply
  • Not seeing the opponent's intended move
  • Not being completely aware to what my opponent up to
  • Short N. - Beliavsky A. [C48]
  • Lack of strategy
  • Not looking for outposts enough
  • Moving pieces which leave holes in my position
  • Failure to spot strategic weaknesses early enough
  • A masterly example:
    • Kramer - Euwe [E28]
  • Read and learn:
    • pope m. - regis d. [A25]

A game for playing-out:

General advice:

I am inclined to think that simple strategy is easier to teach than tactics; the general structural feaures of a position hang around for a long while and club players seem quite good at listing these features when asked.  The hard thing is making your knowledge work in a real game.  The main things are to learn to identify the key features, to make a reasonable plan, and develop enough technique to exploit an advantage.  Silman has done some interesting work in 'playing-out' of strategical positions with his students, which you could try for yourselves.

Further study:

Try CHERNEV: Logical Chess

EUWE/KRAMER: The Middlegame Vol.1

SILMAN: Reassess your chess

GOLOMBEK: Capablanca's Best Games



  • Alekhin A. - Euwe M. [A48]
  • Opening inaccuracy
  • Inferior opening preparation
  • Poor openings
  • In opening, occasionally make over-easy moves which weaken my position
  • The worst opening I ever had:
    • Headlong T. - Regis D. [D40]

Maybe the best:

  • Regis D. - Lane P. [A26]

General advice:

It's as simple as 'Study and practice your openings'.  Study with books (the fewer the better) and practice at the club or online or against a machine. Find a player who uses your favourite openings and play over some games by them; I like Botvinnik.

I would be delighted to give your repertoire an MOT.

Further study:

Under 100

Try WALKER: Chess openings for juniors

KEENE/LEVY: An opening repertoire for the attacking player (1977) (Scotch Gambit, Pirc, and Benko Gambit)


1.e4 Try

    KEENE/LEVY: An opening repertoire for the attacking player (1994) (Scotch Game, Scandinavian, and Tchigorin Defence)

    EMMS: Attacking with 1.e4 (Bishops' Opening, Closed Sicilian, French KIA)

    RAETSKY: Defending against 1.e4 (Sicilian Four Knights')

1.d4 Try KEENE: An opening repertoire for White (Queen's Gambit Exchange Variation)

    SUMMERSCALE: A killer opening repertoire (Colle-Zukertort)

    DUNNINGTON: Attacking with 1.d4 (Queen's Gambit Exchange Variation)

    AAGAARD/LUND: Defending against 1.d4 (Tarrasch Defence)


Try three single-volume opening books on your main White or Black openings.  I rely on KOSTEN: English Opening, WATSON: Play the French and WILLIAMS: Play the Classical Dutch. (I would eschew a video [poor value] but CDs are fine if you get on well with screens.)

There are opening books out there which I don't recommended:

GUFELD: An opening repertoire for the attacking player (Vienna, Sicilian Dragon and Leningrad Dutch) [a maze of complex variations suitable only for a computer or a GM]

BAKER: A startling opening repertoire for White (Scotch Gambit/Max Lange, Sicilian sidelines and French Two Knights') [again, very variation-heavy, I can't imagine anyone going through all this detail and retaining any of it.]

COLLINS: A White opening repertoire (Scotch Game, Alapin Sicilian and Advance French) [unforgivably careless [p.15: exactly how do you reply to 15...Be6 16.O-O Nc4?*], and someone should shoot the editor too] (* P.S. I discover he reveals all(?) in his book on the c3 Sicilian for Gambit)

ALBURT et al.: Chess Openings for White, Explained (Scotch Game, Sicilian Grand Prix and Classical French) ["The main point is not that so many of the lines the authors have given us above are bad, or ineffective, although that is certainly an issue. Rather, it's the lack of integrity throughout." -- WATSON]

ALBURT et al.: Chess Openings for Black, Explained (Accelerated Dragon and Nimzo-Indian) [I can't guarantee this is any better.]


EXAMPLE GAMES: first, preparation to the max!

  • Hayes R. - Juhasz M. [A02]

well, it was Kriegspiel...

  • Playing unsound attacks
  • I can be over-keen to attack, i.e. launch an attack before I've prepared the necessary back-up
  • Over-extension in the middle-game (trying too hard to win)
  • Getting shafted on the diagonals
  • The attack works (1):
    • Lane P. - Regis D. [A42]
  • The attack works (2):
    • Regis D. - Helbig P. [A42]

General advice:

The affliction needs only be named for a treatment to suggest itself: "Set up your attacks, so that when the fire goes out, it isn't out!" (Pillsbury).  However, it might not be so easy to learn how to do that... Playing over example games in the usual intructional books I'm sure will go a way to giving you a feel for it, as well as games by great attackers like Pillsbury, Marshall, Tal, Fischer, Stein and even Nezhmedtinov.  [These GM games will be more close to call than anything we play, of course.]

Further study:

Try WALKER: Attacking the King

CHERNEV: Logical Chess

COZENS: Lessons in Chess Strategy

VUKOVIC: The art of attack


I was glad you all had an opinion about what were the most common reasons that you lose games.  Self-criticism, or at least self-awareness, is the starting point for improving.

"I'm going to stop saying I'll kill him, and kill him!" -- Sid James as Sid Abbott in Bless This House

Turning intention into action is a puzzle I have been battling with personally and professionally all my life...

"Ask yourself the following question, “Of all the games I have lost recently, what percent were lost because of something I did not know, and what percent were lost due to something I already knew, but were not careful to look for?” " -- HEISMAN

ZNOSKO-BOROVSKY: How NOT to play chess

HARDING: Why you lose at chess

SOLTIS: Chess Mistakes

HEISMAN: The Improving Annotator

BAKER: Learn from your chess mistakes

SILMAN: The Amateur's mind

ROWSON: The Seven Deadly Chess Sins

Click [...] for list of games

[Event "Linares 10th"]
[Site "Linares"]
[Date "1992.??.??"]
[Round "2"]
[White "Short, Nigel D"]
[Black "Beliavsky, Alexander G"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "C48"]
[WhiteElo "2685"]
[BlackElo "2620"]
[PlyCount "116"]
[EventDate "1992.02.??"]

1. e4 e5 2. Nc3 Nf6 3. Nf3 Nc6 4. Bb5 Nd4 5. Ba4 Nxf3+ 6. Qxf3 Bc5 7. d3 c6 8.
Bb3 d6 9. O-O h6 10. Be3 Bb6 11. h3 O-O 12. Rfd1 Bxe3 13. Qxe3 b5 14. a4 b4 15.
Ne2 Qb6 16. d4 a5 17. Ng3 Ra7 18. Rd2 Re7 19. Rad1 d5 20. exd5 cxd5 21. dxe5
Qxe3 22. fxe3 Rxe5 23. Bxd5 Rxe3 24. Bf3 Re5 25. Ne2 Rc5 26. Nd4 Bd7 27. Nb3
Rc7 28. Nxa5 Bxa4 29. b3 Bb5 30. Re1 Rfc8 31. Re5 Bd7 32. Nc4 Be6 33. Ne3 Rb8
34. Ra5 g6 35. Rd4 Rd7 36. Rxd7 Bxd7 37. Kf2 Kg7 38. Ra7 g5 39. Ke2 Bb5+ 40.
Kd2 Kg6 41. Rb7 Rxb7 42. Bxb7 h5 43. c4 bxc3+ 44. Kxc3 h4 45. Bf3 Nh5 46. Kd4
Ng7 47. Be4+ Kh5 48. Ke5 Ne8 49. Ng4 Bd7 50. Bf5 Bc6 51. Be4 Bd7 52. Bf5 Bc6
53. Ne3 Kh6 54. b4 Kg7 55. Bd3 Kf8 56. b5 Bb7 {#} 57. Nd5 f6+ 58. Ke6 $4 (58.
Nxf6) 58... Bc8# 0-1

[Event "cambs. vs. beds."]
[Site "cambs. vs. beds."]
[Date "1986.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Watson, C."]
[Black "Regis, David"]
[Result "1/2-1/2"]
[ECO "A40"]
[WhiteElo "1845"]
[BlackElo "1940"]
[PlyCount "96"]
[EventDate "1986.??.??"]

1. d4 {I thankfully remember little of this game ...} g6 2. Bg5 Bg7 3. c3 d5 4.
Nd2 Nd7 5. e4 dxe4 6. Nxe4 Ngf6 7. Bd3 Nxe4 8. Bxe4 O-O 9. Qd2 c5 10. Ne2 cxd4
11. Nxd4 Nc5 12. Bc2 Qb6 13. O-O e5 14. Nf3 Bg4 15. Nh4 Rac8 {a very
mysterious rook move} 16. h3 Be6 17. b3 e4 {characteristically building an
outpost} 18. Rad1 Nd3 19. c4 Qc5 20. Bxd3 exd3 21. Nf3 Bf5 22. Rfe1 Rfe8 23. g4
{?} Be4 24. Qf4 Bxf3 25. Qxf3 Qxg5 26. Rxe8+ Rxe8 27. Rxd3 Re1+ 28. Kg2 {
almost anything wins here eg. Qe7 ...} Be5 {?} 29. Rd7 Qf6 30. Qxf6 Bxf6 31.
Rxb7 Re7 32. Rb8+ Kg7 33. b4 Bd4 34. c5 a5 35. Rd8 Bc3 36. b5 Rc7 37. b6 Rxc5
38. b7 Be5 39. Re8 Bd6 40. Rd8 Be5 41. Re8 Bf4 42. Re4 Bd6 43. Rd4 Bc7 44. Rd7
Bf4 45. Rd4 Rb5 46. Rxf4 Rxb7 47. Rd4 Rb2 48. Ra4 Rb5 {"Truly, the players
proved worthy of each other in this game!" Botvinnik} 1/2-1/2

[Event "planning: wyvill formation"]
[Site "planning: wyvill formation"]
[Date "1978.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "pope, m"]
[Black "regis, d (march)"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "A25"]
[PlyCount "96"]
[EventDate "1978.??.??"]

1. c4 e5 2. Nc3 Nc6 3. e3 Bb4 4. a3 Bxc3 5. bxc3 d6 6. d4 Nf6 {#0/0 After re
ading Euwe/Kramer's MIDDLE GAME I could suddenly beat 120-grade opposition
just by looking at the pawns.} 7. d5 {See the section on the Wyvill formation 
(D6): White should not make this move so casually.} Nb8 {heading for c5} 8. f3
Nbd7 9. Bd3 b6 10. Qc2 Nc5 11. Ne2 Nxd3+ 12. Qxd3 Qe7 13. e4 Nd7 14. O-O Nc5
15. Qc2 Ba6 16. Be3 {# giving up a pawn he will probably lose anyhow. We can
only hope that Black has enough technique to win the endgame...} Bxc4 17. Bxc5
Bxe2 18. Qxe2 dxc5 19. Qb5+ Qd7 20. Qxd7+ Kxd7 21. c4 a6 22. a4 Rad8 {(very
mysterious Rook move)} 23. f4 exf4 {# Structurally sound (backward pawn) but
brings White's pieces into the game.} 24. Rxf4 f6 25. Raf1 Rde8 26. h4 Re5 27.
Kf2 (27. g4 Rhe8 28. Re1 c6) 27... Rhe8 28. Kf3 c6 29. Rd1 cxd5 30. Rxd5+ Rxd5
31. exd5 Re1 32. Re4 Ra1 33. Re6 Rxa4 34. Rxb6 Rxc4 35. Rxa6 Rxh4 36. Ra7+ Kd6
37. Rxg7 Kxd5 38. g3 Rh1 39. Kg4 c4 40. Rf7 c3 41. Rc7 Kd4 42. Rd7+ Ke3 43. Rc7
Kd2 44. Rd7+ Kc2 45. Rd6 Rd1 46. Rxf6 Rd4+ 47. Kh3 Kc1 48. Ra6 c2 0-1

[Event "analysis: assessment and finis"]
[Site "analysis: assessment and fini"]
[Date "1978.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "britton"]
[Black "nunn, islington"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "B06"]
[PlyCount "72"]
[EventDate "1978.??.??"]

1. e4 g6 2. d4 Bg7 3. Nc3 d6 4. Nf3 a6 5. Be2 b5 6. O-O Nd7 7. Re1 c5 8. d5
Ngf6 9. Bf1 O-O 10. h3 Qc7 {planning to bring the rooks to the centre and play
...e6} 11. a3 {loss of time} Bb7 12. Bf4 Rad8 {#} 13. Qd2 {?} (13. Qc1) 13...
Ne5 {"achieving ...e6 is everything" -- NUNN - to get the pieces active} 14.
Qe3 e6 15. Bxe5 {everything else loses material} dxe5 16. dxe6 fxe6 {#0/0 what
about the doubled, isolated e-pawns? they are not standing on an open file,
and (b) the square e4 is not available Black's pieces are better and he has
the initiative - so White pawns areweak} 17. Nd2 (17. Qg5 b4) (17. Bd3 Rd4)
17... Rd4 18. f3 (18. a4 b4 19. Ne2 Nxe4 20. Nxd4 exd4 21. Qd3 Nxf2 {thus far
Nunn calculated in the game} 22. Qb3 Bd5 23. Bc4 Bxc4 24. Qxc4 Nxh3+ 25. gxh3
Qg3+ 26. Kh1 Qxh3+ 27. Kg1 Qg3+ 28. Kh1 {when e6 is weak} Qh4+ 29. Kg1 Qg5+ 30.
Kh1 Qxd2 31. Qxe6+ Kh8 32. Rf1 Rg8 {-+ idea ...Qxc2/...d3}) 18... Nh5 19. Ne2
Nf4 {# (a)material must be seen alongside time, space, potential, structure (b)
'the certainty of having to apply yourself vigorously' (LASKER) after sac} 20.
Nxd4 {else ...Bh6} exd4 21. Qf2 Be5 22. a4 {irresolute} (22. g3 Nh5 23. f4 g5 {
or} (23... Nxg3 {are both very promising})) 22... Nh5 23. g4 Bg3 24. Qe2 Nf4
25. Qd1 c4 26. axb5 axb5 {squeeze play} 27. Bg2 Bxe1 28. Qxe1 e5 29. Nf1 Qc5
30. Kh2 d3 31. cxd3 Nxd3 {piece activity rather than passed pawn - what an
outpost!} 32. Qd2 Qd4 33. Rb1 {#} Bxe4 {if there is any doubt about this move,
you should go slow with ...b4} 34. fxe4 Rf2 35. Qg5 Rxg2+ {this is the
difficult thing to think of - a second sacrifice, and against a really bad
bishop which is in fact holding the King's position} 36. Kxg2 Nf4+ {0-1 NUNN &
GRIFFITHS} (36... Nf4+ 37. Kf3 (37. Kg3 Qg1+ 38. Kh4 Qf2+ 39. Ng3 Ng2#) 37...
Qd3+ 38. Kf2 Qe2+ 39. Kg3 Qg2+ 40. Kh4 Qf2+ 41. Ng3 Ng2#) 0-1

[Event "analysis: game for playing out"]
[Site "analysis: game for playing ou"]
[Date "1980.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "polugaevsky"]
[Black "nunn (skara)"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "A77"]
[PlyCount "64"]
[EventDate "1980.??.??"]

1. d4 Nf6 2. Nf3 c5 3. d5 e6 4. c4 exd5 5. cxd5 d6 6. Nc3 g6 7. e4 Bg7 8. Be2
O-O 9. O-O Re8 10. Nd2 Nbd7 11. Qc2 Ne5 12. b3 Nh5 13. Bxh5 gxh5 14. Bb2 Bd7
15. Rae1 Qh4 16. f4 {# start here against an opponent} Ng4 17. Nf3 Bd4+ 18. Kh1
Nf2+ 19. Rxf2 Qxf2 20. Qc1 Bh3 21. Rg1 Kf8 22. Nxd4 cxd4 23. f5 dxc3 24. Qxc3
Rxe4 25. gxh3 Ke8 26. Qd3 Re1 27. Rxe1+ Qxe1+ 28. Kg2 Rc8 29. f6 Kd7 30. Qxh7
Qd2+ 31. Kg3 Qxd5 32. Kh4 Re8 0-1

[Event "analysis: game for playing out"]
[Site "analysis: game for playing ou"]
[Date "1974.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "borkowski"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "B09"]
[PlyCount "56"]
[EventDate "1974.??.??"]

1. e4 g6 2. d4 Bg7 3. Nc3 d6 4. f4 Nf6 5. Nf3 O-O 6. Bd3 Na6 7. e5 Nd7 8. h4 {
# start here against an opponent} c5 9. h5 cxd4 10. hxg6 hxg6 11. Ng5 dxe5 12.
f5 Nf6 13. fxg6 Bg4 14. gxf7+ Rxf7 15. Ne2 Qd5 16. Bg6 Rff8 17. Qd3 e4 18. Qxd4
Qxd4 19. Nxd4 Rad8 20. Be3 Nb4 21. Rc1 Nbd5 22. Bf2 Nf4 23. Bf5 Rxd4 24. Bxd4
Bxf5 25. g3 Ne6 26. Nxe6 Bxe6 27. Bxa7 Ng4 28. Bc5 Bxb2 0-1

[Event "analysis: just plunge in"]
[Site "analysis: just plunge in"]
[Date "1975.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "corden"]
[Black "nunn, birmingham"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "C55"]
[PlyCount "24"]
[EventDate "1975.??.??"]

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. d4 exd4 4. Bc4 Nf6 5. e5 d5 (5... Ne4 {also =}) 6. Bb5
Ne4 7. Nxd4 Bc5 {# has more attacking potential} (7... Bd7 {is the book move})
8. Nxc6 {?} Bxf2+ 9. Kf1 Qh4 10. Qxd5 (10. Nd4+ c6 11. Nf3 (11. Nxc6 O-O) 11...
Ng3+ 12. Kxf2 Ne4+ 13. Ke2 Qf2+ 14. Kd3 Bf5 {# "with decisive attack". Just
plunge in:} 15. Ba4 (15. Nc3 Nc5#) (15. Bd2 Nxd2+ 16. Kc3 Qe3+ 17. Bd3 Ne4+ 18.
Kb3 Qb6+ 19. Bb5 Qxb5+ 20. Ka3 Qa5+ 21. Kb3 Nc5#) (15. Be3 Nd6+ 16. Kc3 (16.
Kd4 Nxb5+ 17. Kc5 Qxe3+) 16... Qxe3+) (15. Bf4 cxb5) (15. Qe1 Nc5+ 16. Kc3
Qxc2+ 17. Kd4) 15... Nd2+ 16. Kc3 Qe3+ 17. Kb4 a5# {you can at least regain
one piece whenever you wish, still keeping the K exposed. NUNN & GRIFFITHS})
10... Be6 11. Qd3 (11. Nd4+ Ke7 12. Nxe6 fxe6 13. Qb3 Bc5 {-+}) 11... O-O 12.
Nb4 (12. Na5 Bb6) (12. Nd4 Bxd4 13. Qxd4 {??} Ng3+ 14. hxg3 Qxd4) 12... Bc5 0-1

[Event "WECU Jamboree (Wilts)"]
[Site "exeter vs. plymouth (bemridge"]
[Date "1999.09.19"]
[Round "3"]
[White "Headlong, T."]
[Black "Regis, D."]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "A35"]
[PlyCount "33"]
[EventDate "1999.??.??"]

1. Nf3 {Ribli Ribli} (1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 g6 3. d4 Bg7 4. c4 Qb6) 1... c5 2. c4 Nc6
3. Nc3 g6 (3... Nf6 4. e3 d5 5. d4 e6 (5... cxd4 6. Nxd4)) (3... e6) (3... e5)
(3... Nd4 $5 {0-1 Karpov,A-Anand,V/Linares 1991/CBM 22/[Anand]}) 4. e3 d6 5. d4
Bg4 6. Be2 Bg7 7. d5 Ne5 8. Nxe5 Bxe2 9. Qa4+ Kf8 10. Nd7+ Ke8 11. Nxc5+ Kf8
12. Nd7+ Ke8 13. Nb6+ Kf8 14. Nxa8 Bd3 15. Qxa7 Bxc3+ 16. bxc3 Nf6 17. Qd4 1-0

[Event "East Devon"]
[Site "Exeter"]
[Date "2007.02.25"]
[Round "4"]
[White "Regis, D."]
[Black "Helbig, P."]
[Result "1/2-1/2"]
[ECO "A42"]
[PlyCount "87"]
[EventDate "2007.??.??"]

1. e4 g6 2. d4 Bg7 3. c4 d6 4. Nc3 Nc6 5. d5 Nd4 6. Be3 c5 7. Nge2 Nxe2 (7...
Qb6 8. Nxd4 cxd4 (8... Bxd4 9. Bxd4 cxd4 10. Nb5 a6 11. Qxd4) 9. Na4 Qa5+ 10.
b4 Qxb4+ 11. Bd2 Qa3 12. Bc1 Qb4+ 13. Bd2) 8. Bxe2 Nf6 9. O-O O-O 10. f4 Ne8
11. Qd2 Nc7 12. f5 a6 13. Bh6 (13. fxg6) 13... Bd7 14. a4 (14. Bxg7 Kxg7 15.
Qf4) 14... b5 (14... Bd4+ 15. Kh1 Re8 16. fxg6 hxg6 17. Qf4 Bf6 18. g4) 15.
axb5 (15. Bxg7 Kxg7 16. axb5 axb5) 15... axb5 16. Bxg7 (16. Rxa8 Qxa8 17. Bxg7
Kxg7 18. Nxb5) 16... Rxa1 17. Rxa1 Kxg7 18. Nxb5 Nxb5 19. cxb5 Qb8 20. fxg6
hxg6 21. Qc3+ f6 22. Ra5 Rc8 23. Bc4 Rc7 24. Qa3 Rb7 25. Ra8 Qc7 26. Ra5 Qb8
27. Ra8 Qc7 28. Qa6 Kf7 29. Qa3 Qb6 30. Ra6 Qc7 31. Rc6 Qb8 32. Qa6 Kg7 33. Qa4
Bxc6 34. dxc6 Ra7 35. Qb3 Ra1+ 36. Kf2 Qb6 37. Qh3 Qa5 38. Qc3 (38. Qe6 Qd2+
39. Kf3 Ra8 40. Qxe7+ Kh6 41. Qxf6 Qe1 $18) 38... Qc7 39. Qh3 (39. g3 Ra4 40.
Qd3) (39. Bd5 $1 Qb6 40. Bc4 Ra5 41. Qb3 Ra1 42. Qd3 Ra5 43. Qd5) 39... d5 40.
Bxd5 (40. Qg3 $5 Qxg3+ 41. hxg3 dxc4 42. b6 Ra8 43. b7 (43. c7 Rc8 44. b7 Rxc7
45. b8=Q Rd7 46. Ke2 c3 47. bxc3 c4 48. Qc8 Rd3 49. Qxc4 Rxg3 50. Kf2 Rg4 51.
Kf3) 43... Rb8 44. c7 Rxb7 45. c8=Q Rxb2+ 46. Ke3 c3 47. Qxc5 Rxg2 48. Qxc3
Rxg3+) 40... Qf4+ 41. Qf3 Qd2+ 42. Kg3 (42. Qe2 $1) 42... Qg5+ (42... Qxb2 $1
$19 43. Kh4 Qxb5) 43. Qg4 Qe3+ 44. Qf3 1/2-1/2

[Event "Cambs Univ Ch'p"]
[Site "Cambs Univ Ch'p"]
[Date "1979.??.??"]
[Round "6"]
[White "Regis, D."]
[Black "Seipel, H."]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D14"]
[PlyCount "70"]
[EventDate "1979.??.??"]

1. d4 d5 2. c4 c6 3. Nf3 Nf6 4. cxd5 cxd5 5. Nc3 Nc6 6. Bf4 Bf5 7. e3 e6 8. Bb5
Rc8 9. Ne5 Nd7 10. Nxc6 bxc6 11. Ba6 c5 12. Bxc8 Qxc8 13. dxc5 Bxc5 14. O-O O-O
15. Qe2 e5 16. Bg3 d4 17. exd4 exd4 18. Na4 Bb4 19. Rfc1 Qb7 20. Rc7 Qd5 21.
Rd1 Qxa2 22. Rxa7 Qd5 23. Nc3 d3 24. Qe3 Qb3 25. Qf3 Bxc3 26. bxc3 Be4 27. Qg4
Nf6 28. Ra3 Qxa3 29. Qf4 Qxc3 30. Bh4 Bg6 31. Qe3 Rc8 32. h3 Qc2 33. Qe1 Re8
34. Qf1 d2 35. Bg5 Qxd1 0-1

[Event "Exeter 'a' vs. Exeter 'b'"]
[Site "exeter 'a' vs. exeter 'b'"]
[Date "1994.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Lane, Peter CR"]
[Black "Regis, David"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "A42"]
[WhiteElo "1900"]
[BlackElo "1855"]
[PlyCount "39"]
[EventDate "1994.??.??"]

1. d4 g6 2. c4 d6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. e4 f5 (4... Nc6 {... but I had forgotten the
theory, and was afraid PL had looked it up}) 5. Nge2 (5. exf5 Bxf5 {two Bilek
games went this way in the late 1960s}) 5... fxe4 (5... Nf6) 6. Nxe4 d5 (6...
Nh6 7. N2g3 Nc6 8. Be3 Nf5) 7. cxd5 Qxd5 8. N2c3 Qa5 (8... Qxd4 9. Qb3 {I was
worried about 9.Qxd4 Bxd4 10.Nd5 but 10...Bb6 11.Be3 c6 may hold.} Nc6 10. Bc4
Nf6 11. Be3 Qe5 {...was what PL was analysing}) 9. Bc4 Nc6 10. Be3 Nh6 11. O-O
Nf5 (11... Bf5 12. Nc5 O-O-O 13. Nd5 {which may be better but is not
comfortable for Black!}) 12. Nd5 Nxe3 13. fxe3 Bf5 14. Rxf5 gxf5 15. Qh5+ Kd8
16. Nc5 Rb8 17. Qxf5 Qxc5 18. dxc5 Rf8 19. Qe6 Be5 20. Rd1 1-0

[Event "newman quickplay"]
[Site "newman quickplay"]
[Date "1995.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Regis, David"]
[Black "Lane, Peter CR"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "A24"]
[PlyCount "63"]
[EventDate "1995.??.??"]

1. c4 Nf6 2. Nc3 g6 3. g3 Bg7 4. Bg2 O-O 5. e4 d6 6. Nge2 e5 7. O-O Be6 8. d3
Qd7 9. f4 Bh3 10. Bd2 (10. f5 Bxg2 11. Kxg2 Nc6) 10... Bxg2 11. Kxg2 Nc6 12. f5
Ne7 13. Bg5 h5 14. Rf3 Nh7 15. Bxe7 Qxe7 16. Nd5 Qd7 17. h4 c6 18. Ne3 Nf6 19.
Qf1 a6 20. Ng1 b5 21. cxb5 axb5 22. Nh3 d5 23. Ng5 dxe4 24. Nxe4 Nxe4 25. dxe4
Qd2+ 26. Kh3 Qxb2 27. g4 Qd4 28. f6 Bxf6 29. gxh5 Bg7 30. Ng4 Qxe4 31. h6 Bh8
32. Re1 {... Black queened the f-pawn ...0-1} 0-1

[Event "?"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1974.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "RB"]
[Black "BB"]
[Result "*"]
[Annotator "Missiaen"]
[SetUp "1"]
[FEN "k4b2/8/8/8/8/1b6/2R3K1/3B4 w - - 0 1"]
[PlyCount "15"]
[EventDate "1974.??.??"]

1. Bf3+ (1. Rc8+ Kb7 2. Rxf8 Bxd1 $11) 1... Ka7 (1... Kb8 2. Rb2) 2. Rc3 $1 Be6
(2... Ba4 3. Rc8 Bd6 4. Ra8+) 3. Rc6 Bb3 $1 (3... Bf5 4. Rf6) 4. Kh1 $3 Bb4 (
4... Ba3 5. Rc3) (4... Bg7 5. Rc7+) 5. Rc1 $1 Bg8 (5... Bd6 6. Ra1+ Kb6 7. Rb1)
(5... Be6 6. Rc7+ Ka6 (6... Kb8 7. Rb7+) 7. Rc6+) 6. Rg1 $1 Be6 7. Rg7+ Kb6 8.
Rg6 *

[Event "Baarn"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1949.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Kramer"]
[Black "Euwe"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "E28"]
[Annotator "09: Wyvill Formation"]
[PlyCount "108"]
[EventDate "1949.??.??"]

{Black provokes Pd5 without playing ... Pc5} 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Bb4 4.
e3 O-O 5. a3 Bxc3+ 6. bxc3 d6 7. Bd3 e5 8. Ne2 b6 9. Ng3 Nc6 10. Bb2 Ba6 11. e4
Qe8 12. Qe2 Na5 {Master play has few examples of the Wyvill formation with
Black's c-pawn unmoved. The reason is obvious: the advance of Black's c-pawn
is usually the only way of forcing White to push his d-pawn to d5. Only under
very exceptional circumstances will he do it voluntarily} 13. a4 $2 {An
instructive mistake, after which Black can force White's Pd5} (13. Nf1 $142 {
With his c-pawn thus secured, White could have set about preparing Kingside
operations by Pf4}) 13... Qe6 $1 14. d5 Qg4 15. f3 Qh4 16. O-O Nh5 $1 {Even
now White's best chance would be to force Pf4, and Black's maneuvers are
directed against this possibility} 17. Nf5 Qg5 18. Bc1 (18. h4 Qd8 19. g3 g6)
18... Nf4 19. Bxf4 exf4 {Strategically Black's superiority seems overwhelming.
He has support points at a5, c5 and e5, and White has the bad Bishop. Even so,
the realisation of these advantages is far from simple} 20. Nd4 Rfe8 21. Nb5
Bxb5 22. cxb5 {The characteris tic doubled pawn of the Wyvill formation has
gone, but White's strategic problems have not gone with it.} Qf6 23. Ra3 Re5
24. Qd2 Rh5 25. g3 Rg5 26. Kf2 $1 Qh6 27. Kg2 Rh5 (27... fxg3 28. h4 Qxh4 29.
Rh1 $18) 28. Rh1 g5 29. g4 Rh4 30. h3 Re8 31. Bf1 Qf6 32. Kf2 (32. Qd4 $142)
32... h5 33. Rg1 hxg4 34. Rxg4 Rxg4 35. hxg4 Qh6 36. Kg1 Kg7 37. Qh2 Qg6 38.
Ra2 Rh8 39. Qf2 Qh6 40. Qh2 Qf6 41. Qc2 Nb7 42. Qd2 Qh6 43. Qd4+ f6 44. Bg2 Nc5
45. Kf1 Qh2 46. a5 $2 (46. Qg1 {could still hold out}) 46... bxa5 47. Qg1 (47.
Rxa5 Nb3 48. Qxa7 Nd2+ $1) 47... Qg3 48. Qf2 a4 49. Qxg3 fxg3 50. Ke2 Rh2 51.
Ke3 Nb3 52. f4 Nc1 53. Ra1 (53. Rc2 gxf4+ 54. Kxf4 Nd3+ 55. Kxg3 Ne1 $19) 53...
Rxg2 54. Rxc1 Rb2 0-1

[Event "London"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1922.??.??"]
[Round "4"]
[White "Alekhine, Alexander"]
[Black "Euwe, Max"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "A48"]
[Annotator "AA"]
[PlyCount "99"]
[EventDate "1922.08.??"]

{This game was chosen by Andrew Soltis to exemplify the early promise of this
scheme of development.[DR]} 1. d4 Nf6 2. Nf3 g6 {This variation, introduced
into master-practice by Gruenfeld, rests upon the following ideas:- The
development of the King's Bishop in fianchetto, and the withholding of d2-d4
until White has developed his Knight at c3.} 3. Bf4 {Trying a new system which
occasions Black less difficulty than the line of play quoted above. Compare
also the games Capablanca-Reti and Rubinstein-Euwe from the same Tournament.} (
{By this means Black, after} 3. c4 Bg7 4. Nc3 d5 5. cxd5 Nxd5 6. e4 Nxc3 7.
bxc3 {Consequently, the best line of play for White consists in moving the
Queen's Knight only after having augmented the pressure on the square d5 by
g2-g3 and Bg2, which seems to secure him a slight advantage, as shown among
others by the games Alekhine-MulIer (Margate, 1923), Saemisch - Gruenfeld 
(Carlsbad, 1923) and Alekhine-Reti (New York, 1924).}) 3... Bg7 4. Nbd2 c5 $1 {
A good move.} 5. e3 ({If} 5. dxc5 {Black regains the Pawn with advantage by}
Na6 $1) 5... d6 {#} 6. c3 Nc6 7. h3 {This move is essential to reserve a
square of retreat for the Queen's Bishop in case of ...Nh5.} O-O 8. Bc4 $1 {
The best square for this Bishop. The reply 8...d5 is clearly not to be feared,
as it would merely enhance the prospects of the opposing Queen's Bishop. [This
point no longer carries the weight it once did and 8.Be2 is seen more often. 
[AS]]} Re8 {Preparing ... e7-e5, which will, however, have the disadvantage of
weakening the square d6.} 9. O-O e5 {#} 10. dxe5 Nxe5 ({The capture with the
Knight yields White at once a very perceptible, if not decisive, advantage in
position. Black would do better by} 10... dxe5 11. Bh2 Be6 12. Bxe6 Rxe6 13.
Nc4 {after which White's advantage, undeniable as it is, would be very
difficult to take advantage of.}) 11. Bxe5 $1 dxe5 {#} 12. Ng5 $1 {This simple
move, as seen later on, assures White the possession of the only open file.}
Be6 ({An heroic resolution, because after the doubling of the Pawn Black's K B
is left quite without action, Somewhat better was} 12... Rf8 13. Nde4 $1 Qxd1 (
{if} 13... Nxe4 $2 14. Bxf7+ $1) 14. Rfxd1 Nxe4 15. Nxe4 b6 {although, in this
case also, White would have secured excellent winning chances}) 13. Bxe6 fxe6
14. Nde4 Nxe4 15. Qxd8 Rexd8 16. Nxe4 b6 {#0/0 White has the advantage. The
difference in strength between the White Knight and the Black Bishop is
obvious. But to realise his advantage he must: (a) fix Black's King's-side
pawns, since otherwise the bishop may escape from is 'prison'; (b) wrest the
d-file from the opponent (in doing so he must weigh up whether or not the
minor piece ending is won or whether a pair of rooks must be retained); (c)
give Black a second weakness on the Queen's-side, since he already has one,
and a very serious one at that--the Bishop at g7; (d) if possible, invade the
opponent's position with decisive effect. [MIS]} 17. Rfd1 (17. Rfd1 Kf7 18.
Ng5+ Ke7 19. Nxh7 Bh6 20. h4 Rh8 21. Ng5 Bxg5 22. hxg5 Rh5 23. f4 Rf8 24. g3
Rfh8 25. Rf1 e4 26. c4 Rh1+ 27. Kf2 R8h2+ 28. Ke1 Rxf1+ 29. Kxf1 Rh1+ {1 467
vs JS 1}) (17. Rfd1 Kf7 18. Kf1 Ke7 19. Ke2 c4 20. Rd2 Rxd2+ 21. Kxd2 Rd8+ 22.
Ke2 Rd5 23. Rd1 b5 {2 1467 vs JS}) (17. Rfd1 Kf7 18. c4 Ke7 19. Kf1 h6 20. a4
a5 21. b3 Rab8 22. Ke2 Bf8 23. h4 Kf7 24. Rxd8 Rxd8 25. Rd1 Rxd1 26. Kxd1 Be7
27. g3 Ke8 28. Ke2 Kd7 29. Kd3 Bd8 30. Nc3 Ke7 31. Ke4 Bc7 32. g4 g5 33. hxg5
hxg5 34. Nb1 Kf6 35. Nd2 Bb8 {3 1467 vs JS}) 17... Kf8 18. Kf1 $1 ({White
could have won a Pawn by} 18. Ng5 {but that would have allowed Black to force
exchange of Bishop against Knight by} Ke7 19. Nxh7 Bh6 20. h4 Rh8 {with good
drawing chances}) 18... Ke7 ({If} 18... c4 {then} 19. Nd6 $1 {But now Black
threatens, by means of 19.. .c4, to occupy d5 and later d6 with his Rook.}) 19.
c4 $1 {Preventing the above threat, and at the same time making the third rank
free for the Rook, which is very important, as shown later.} h6 20. Ke2 Rxd1 {#
} 21. Rxd1 Rb8 {Black is compelled to avoid the exchange of Rooks, which would
enable White to force the win in the following way :} (21... Rd8 22. Rxd8 Kxd8
{#0/0 (Variation) 1st phase: 23.h3-h4! followed by g2-g4 and g4-g5, on which
Black will have nothing better than ...h7-h5, seeing that the exchange of
Pawns abandons the square h4 to White's Knight 2nd phase: b2-b3 followed by
Kd3, Nc3 and Ke4.3rd phase: the transfer of the Knight to d3, after which
Black must immobilise the King on d6, in order to be able to defende the
doubly-attacked e5-Pawn. 4th phase: Abd lastly f2-f4!, forcing the win of the
e-Pawn or g-Pawn, after which the advantage secured will be decisive. By
avoiding the exchange of Rooks, Black makes the task of his opponent more
difficult.}) 22. Rd3 Bh8 23. a4 $1 {The only means of forcing the decisive
entry of the White Rook into the enemy's game.} Rc8 ({White takes advantage of
the fact that Black cannot reply by} 23... a5 {on account of} 24. Rb3 $1 {
winning the c-Pawn or the b-Pawn.}) 24. Rb3 Kd7 25. a5 $1 Kc6 {#} ({It is
obvious that it is better to abstain from capturing White's Q R P, because of} 
25... bxa5 26. Rb5) 26. axb6 axb6 27. Ra3 Bg7 28. Ra7 Rc7 {Black reconciles
himself to the exchange of Rooks, but White now considers that by avoiding it
he will attain the victory still more speedily.} 29. Ra8 $1 Re7 30. Rc8+ Kd7 {#
} 31. Rg8 $1 Kc6 32. h4 {In order to block in the Bishop completely before
undertaking the decisive manoeuvre with his Knight.} Kc7 33. g4 Kc6 34. Kd3 {
This was not quite necessary, seeing that White's King will be compelled to
return to its starting point. By 34.b2-b3 White could have shortened the game
by several moves.} Rd7+ 35. Kc3 Rf7 {#} 36. b3 Kc7 37. Kd3 Rd7+ 38. Ke2 Rf7 39.
Nc3 $1 {In order to post this Knight on b6, where its action will be still
more powerful than on e4.} Re7 40. g5 hxg5 {#} 41. hxg5 Kc6 42. Kd3 ({White
has at his command another winning line also, based upon the manoeuvre} 42. Ne4
{-d2-c3-a4 winning the b-Pawn, but he prefers to follow the path which he has
traced out for himself.}) 42... Rd7+ 43. Ke4 Rc7 44. Nb5 Re7 ({If} 44... Rf7 {
then} 45. Rc8+ {followed by} Kb7 46. Nd6+ {winning the Rook.}) 45. f3 Kd7 {#
The only move.} ({If} 45... Kb7 {then} 46. Nd6+ {followed by} Kc6 47. Ne8 {
winning the Bishop.}) 46. Rb8 Kc6 47. Rc8+ Kd7 ({Or} 47... Kb7 48. Nd6+ Ka7 49.
Rg8 {and wins.}) 48. Rc7+ Kd8 49. Rc6 $1 {Forcing the first gain of material
but also immediately decisive.} Rb7 50. Rxe6 1-0


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