Planning in the endgame

Lessons that can be applied elsewhere, I hope; if you have examples of games where you have struggled, send them in.

How to plan, anyway (from Jeremy Silman).

Botvinnik-Kann

Here is a breakdown of the different imbalances:

1) Material (owning pieces of greater value than the opponent's).

2) Space (the annexation of territory on a chess board).

3) Superior Minor Piece (the interplay between Bishops and Knights).

4) Pawn Structure (a broad subject that encompasses doubled pawns, isolated pawns, etc.).

5) Control of a key file or square (files and diagonals act as pathways for your pieces, while squares act as homes

6) Lead in development (more force in a specific area of the board).

7) Initiative (dictating the tempo of a game).

Recognising these imbalances (you will find definitions to all these terms in the Glossary at the end of this book) and understanding their relationship to planning will be the main focus of this book. If we are to use these things properly we must be able to break down our thinking in a way that allows us to dissect any particular position.

Here are the stages of my thinking technique that enables us to accomplish this:

1. Figure out the positive and negative imbalances for both sides.

2. Figure out the side of the board you wish to play on. You can only play where a favourable imbalance or the possibility of creating a favourable imbalance exists.

3. Don't calculate! Instead, dream up various fantasy positions, i.e., the positions you would most like to achieve.

4. Once you find a fantasy position that makes you happy, you must figure out if you can reach it. If you find that your choice was not possible to implement, you must create another dream position that is easier to achieve.

5. Only now do you look at the moves you wish to calculate (called candidate moves). The candidate moves are all the moves that lead to our dream position. This will be discussed fully in Part Three of this book.

Let's now take a look at this thinking technique in action. If it seems difficult, don't panic! It just takes practice. Nobody ever said that getting your thoughts to work in a structured way would be easy!

Complete game

  • Botvinnik M. - Kan I. [E21]

Elements of endgame planning:

1. Passed pawn

  • Fischer R. - Berliner [B03]

2. Pawn majority

  • Marshall F. - Capablanca J. [D33]

3. Rook on the seventh

  • Fischer - Petrosian [B42]
  • Capablanca J. - Tartakower S. [A90]

4. Infiltration (Weak colour complex), blockade, breakthrough

  • Bernstein - Mieses [B45]
  • Petrosian A. - Hazai L. [E80]
  • Pillsbury H. - Gunsberg I. [D94]

5. Accumulation theory

  • Steinitz - Blackburne [C29]

6. Two weaknesses

  • Hug - Barle [C50]
  • Lasker E. - Capablanca J. [D62]

7. Manoeuvring

  • Nimzovitch A. - Capablanca J. [B12]

8. Minority attack

  • Vogt - Andersson [B84]

9. Endgame technique

  • Calvo - Anderssen [B15]

A bit of Capablanca magic

"Once in a lobby of the Hall of Columns of the Trade Union Centre in Moscow a group of masters were analysing an ending. They could not find the right way to go about things and there was a lot of arguing about it. Suddenly Capablanca came into the room. He was always find of walking about when it was his opponent's turn to move. Learning the reason for the dispute the Cuban bent down to the position, said 'Si, si,' and suddenly redistributed the pieces all over the board to show what the correct formation was for the side trying to win. I haven't exaggerated. Don Jose literally pushed the pieces around the board without making moves. He just put them in fresh positions where he thought they were needed."

"Suddenly everything became clear. The correct scheme of things had been set up and now the win was easy. We were delighted by Capablanca's mastery..."

-- KOTOV, Think like a Grandmaster, tr. Cafferty, pub. 1971 Batsford.

  • Capablanca - Ragozin [E22]

Alekhin plays for a win

  • Znosko Borovsky Euge - Alekhin Alexander [C79]
The best books for further study of endgame planning are undoubtedly Shereshevsy's. Click [...] for list of games
[Event "URS-ch11"]
[Site "Leningrad"]
[Date "1939.??.??"]
[Round "10"]
[White "Botvinnik, Mikhail"]
[Black "Kan, Ilia Abramovich"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "E24"]
[PlyCount "81"]
[EventDate "1939.04.15"]

1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Bb4 4. Nf3 c5 5. a3 Bxc3+ 6. bxc3 Qa5 7. Bd2 Ne4 8.
Qc2 Nxd2 9. Nxd2 d6 10. e3 e5 11. dxe5 dxe5 12. Bd3 h6 13. O-O O-O 14. f4 Nd7
15. f5 Nf6 16. Ne4 Qd8 17. Nxf6+ Qxf6 18. Be4 Rb8 19. Rad1 b6 20. h3 Ba6 21.
Bd5 b5 22. cxb5 Rxb5 23. c4 Rb6 24. Rb1 Rd8 25. Rxb6 axb6 26. e4 Bc8 27. Qa4
Bd7 28. Qa7 Be8 29. Rb1 Rd6 30. a4 Kh7 31. a5 bxa5 32. Qxa5 Ra6 33. Qxc5 Ra2
34. Qe3 Qa6 35. Rb8 Qa4 36. Kh2 Ra3 37. Qc5 Ra2 38. Ra8 Qxa8 39. Bxa8 Rxa8 40.
Qxe5 Bc6 41. Qc7 1-0

[Event "planning: piece positions (com"]
[Site "planning: piece positions (co"]
[Date "1936.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Capablanca"]
[Black "Ragozin"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "E22"]
[Annotator "Kotov"]
[PlyCount "125"]
[EventDate "1936.??.??"]

1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Bb4 4. Qb3 Nc6 5. e3 d5 6. Nf3 O-O 7. a3 dxc4 8. Bxc4
Bd6 9. Bb5 e5 {Black inititates some unwarranted complications} 10. Bxc6 exd4
11. Nxd4 bxc6 12. Nxc6 {This gain of a pawn ultimately decides the game.} Qd7
13. Nd4 Qg4 14. O-O Ba6 15. h3 Qh4 16. Nf3 Qh5 17. Re1 Rab8 18. Qa4 Bb7 19. e4
h6 20. Be3 {# Black is struggling to hold the Queen's-side.} Rfe8 21. Bd4 Nh7
22. Bxa7 Ra8 23. Qb5 Qxb5 24. Nxb5 Rxe4 25. Rxe4 Bxe4 26. Nd2 Bd3 27. Nxd6 Rxa7
28. N6e4 Nf8 29. Nc5 Bf5 30. Nf3 Ne6 31. Rc1 Kf8 32. Nxe6+ Bxe6 {"White's plan
is to prevent the advance of the enemy c-pawn which might make his own pawn at
b2 weak, and to control the whole board as far as the fifth rank. This is
achieved by playing the King to e3, the Rook to c3, the Knight to d4 and the
pawns to b4 and f4. When this has been achieved White will advance his Q-side
pawns" -- CAPABLANCA, Moscow 1936 Tournament Bulletin, quoted by KOTOV in Play
like a Grandmaster, tr. Cafferty, pub. 1978 Batsford. ("Note - no variations!"
KOTOV)} 33. Nd4 Rb7 34. b4 Bd7 35. f4 Ke7 36. Kf2 Ra7 37. Rc3 Kd6 38. Rd3 Ke7
39. Ke3 Ra4 40. Rc3 {mission accomplished} Kd6 41. Rd3 Ke7 42. Rb3 Kd6 {the
Knight is needed on c3 now to support the advance of the Q-side pawns, so we
have a little shuffle} 43. Ne2 g6 44. Rd3+ Ke6 45. Kd4 Ra6 46. Re3+ Kd6 47. Nc3
f5 48. b5 Ra8 49. Kc4 Be6+ 50. Kb4 c5+ 51. bxc6 Bg8 52. Nb5+ Kxc6 53. Rd3 g5 {
# A slightly desperate-looking move. The Black pawns fall now and the win
becomes straightforward.} 54. Rd6+ Kb7 55. fxg5 hxg5 56. Rg6 Rf8 57. Rxg5 f4
58. Nd4 Rc8 59. Rg7+ Kb6 60. Rg6+ Kb7 61. Nb5 Rf8 62. Nd6+ Kb8 63. h4 1-0

[Event "Top 10 endgames: "]
[Site "Paris"]
[Date "1933.??.??"]
[Round "4"]
[White "Znosko Borovsky Euge"]
[Black "Alekhine Alexander"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "C87"]
[PlyCount "110"]
[EventDate "1933.??.??"]

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 Nf6 5. O-O d6 6. c3 Bd7 7. Re1 Be7 8. d4
O-O 9. Nbd2 Be8 10. Bxc6 Bxc6 11. dxe5 dxe5 12. Nxe5 Bxe4 13. Nxe4 Qxd1 14.
Nxf6+ gxf6 15. Rxd1 fxe5 16. Bh6 {(prompts an exchange Black wants anyway!)}
Rfd8 17. Kf1 {#0/0 The endgame position reached is by no means as easy to
conduct - especially for the first player - as it appears. Black's plan -
which will prove a complete success - is divided into the following parts: (1)
Exchange one pair of Rooks. (2) Bring the King to e6 where he will be
protected from a frontal attack by the e-Pawn, and can prevent the entrance of
the remaining White Rook at d7. (3) By operating with the Rook on the open
g-file, and advancing the h-Pawn, force the opening of the h-file. (4) After
this the White King - and eventually also the Bishop - will be kept busy in
order to prevent the intrusion of the Black Rook at h1 or h2. (5) In the
meantime, Black, by advancing his a- and b-Pawns, will sooner or later succeed
in opening one file on the Queen's-side. (6) As, at that moment, the White
King will still be on the other wing, White will not have sufficient force to
prevent the final intrusion of the Black Rook on his first or second rank.} f5
18. Rxd8+ Rxd8 19. g3 Kf7 20. Be3 h5 21. Ke2 Ke6 22. Rd1 Rg8 23. f3 h4 24. Bf2
hxg3 25. hxg3 Rh8 26. Bg1 Bd6 27. Kf1 Rg8 28. Bf2 b5 29. b3 a5 30. Kg2 a4 31.
Rd2 axb3 32. axb3 Ra8 33. c4 Ra3 34. c5 Be7 35. Rb2 b4 36. g4 f4 37. Kf1 Ra1+
38. Ke2 Rc1 39. Ra2 Rc3 40. Ra7 Kd7 41. Rb7 Rxb3 42. Rb8 Rb2+ 43. Kf1 b3 44.
Kg1 Kc6 45. Kf1 Kd5 46. Rb7 e4 47. fxe4+ Kxe4 48. Rxc7 Kf3 49. Rxe7 Rxf2+ 50.
Ke1 b2 51. Rb7 Rc2 52. c6 Kg3 53. c7 f3 54. Kd1 Rxc7 55. Rxb2 f2 {Granted that,
if White had, from the beginning, realised that there actually existed a
danger of losing this endgame, he probably would, by extremely careful defence,
have saved it. But as it happened, Black played with a definite plan, and
White only with the conviction that the game must be drawn. And the result was,
a very instructive series of typical stratagems, much more useful for
inexperienced players than so-called 'brilliancies'.} 0-1

[Event "Top 10 endgames: "]
[Site "model ending: major pieces (N"]
[Date "1927.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Nimzovitch, A."]
[Black "Capablanca, J. [t50"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "B12"]
[PlyCount "92"]
[EventDate "1927.??.??"]

1. e4 c6 2. d4 d5 3. e5 Bf5 4. Bd3 Bxd3 5. Qxd3 e6 6. Nc3 Qb6 7. Nge2 c5 8.
dxc5 Bxc5 9. O-O Ne7 10. Na4 Qc6 11. Nxc5 Qxc5 12. Be3 Qc7 13. f4 Nf5 14. c3
Nc6 15. Rad1 g6 16. g4 Nxe3 17. Qxe3 h5 18. g5 O-O 19. Nd4 Qb6 20. Rf2 Rfc8 21.
a3 Rc7 22. Rd3 Na5 23. Re2 Re8 24. Kg2 Nc6 25. Red2 Rec8 26. Re2 Ne7 27. Red2
Rc4 28. Qh3 Kg7 29. Rf2 a5 30. Re2 Nf5 31. Nxf5+ gxf5 {# White seems to have
fair prospects - none of the pieces have much scope, and Black cannot switch
side easily. Capa gives a lesson in manoeuvring with the heavy pieces in the
ending...} 32. Qf3 Kg6 33. Red2 Re4 34. Rd4 Rc4 35. Qf2 Qb5 36. Kg3 Rcxd4 37.
cxd4 Qc4 38. Kg2 b5 39. Kg1 b4 40. axb4 axb4 {# By little steps and threats,
Capa has worked his pieces into place} 41. Kg2 Qc1 42. Kg3 Qh1 43. Rd3 Re1 44.
Rf3 Rd1 45. b3 Rc1 46. Re3 Rf1 {A marvellous manoevring game which reminds us
of the finest achievements of... Nimzovitch!} (46... Rf1 47. Qe2 Qg1+ 48. Kh3
Rf2) 0-1

[Event "Top 10 endgames: "]
[Site "New York m"]
[Date "1909.??.??"]
[Round "23"]
[White "Marshall, Frank"]
[Black "Capablanca, Jose"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D33"]
[PlyCount "98"]
[EventDate "1909.??.??"]

1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 c5 4. cxd5 exd5 5. Nf3 Nc6 6. g3 Be6 7. Bg2 Be7 8. O-O
Nf6 9. Bg5 Ne4 10. Bxe7 Qxe7 11. Ne5 Nxd4 12. Nxe4 dxe4 13. e3 Nf3+ 14. Nxf3
exf3 15. Qxf3 O-O 16. Rac1 {# "He should have advanced his King's-side pawns
at once to counterbalance the advance of Black on the Queen's-side. White's
inactivity on his stronger wing took away all the chances he had of drawing
the game." CAPABLANCA} Rab8 17. Qe4 Qc7 18. Rc3 b5 19. a3 c4 20. Bf3 Rfd8 21.
Rd1 Rxd1+ 22. Bxd1 Rd8 23. Bf3 g6 24. Qc6 Qe5 25. Qe4 Qxe4 26. Bxe4 Rd1+ 27.
Kg2 a5 28. Rc2 b4 29. axb4 axb4 30. Bf3 Rb1 31. Be2 b3 32. Rd2 Rc1 33. Bd1 c3
34. bxc3 b2 35. Rxb2 Rxd1 36. Rc2 Bf5 37. Rb2 Rc1 38. Rb3 Be4+ 39. Kh3 Rc2 40.
f4 h5 41. g4 hxg4+ 42. Kxg4 Rxh2 43. Rb4 f5+ 44. Kg3 Re2 45. Rc4 Rxe3+ 46. Kh4
Kg7 47. Rc7+ Kf6 48. Rd7 Bg2 49. Rd6+ Kg7 0-1

[Event "Top 10 endgames: "]
[Site "weak pawns: weak colour compl"]
[Date "1921.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Bernstein"]
[Black "Mieses"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "B45"]
[PlyCount "97"]
[EventDate "1921.??.??"]

1. e4 c5 2. Nc3 e6 3. Nf3 Nc6 4. d4 cxd4 5. Nxd4 Nf6 6. Nxc6 bxc6 7. e5 Nd5 8.
Ne4 f5 9. exf6 Nxf6 10. Nd6+ Bxd6 11. Qxd6 Ne4 12. Qd4 Nf6 13. Qd6 Ne4 14. Qb4
d5 15. Bd3 Qd6 16. Qxd6 Nxd6 17. f4 {#0/0 ! A key move, preventing the advance
e6-e5 when Black's position is fine. The rest of the game features an iron
determination to prevent any freeing move by Black, and a gradual invasion on
the dark squares.} a5 18. Be3 Ba6 19. Kd2 Nc4+ 20. Bxc4 Bxc4 {# It is
sometimes assumed that the presence of opposite-coloured bishops is a powerful
drawing factor. This is true of some simple or blocked positions, but here all
Black's pieces stand badly because of the weak dark squares.} 21. a4 Kd7 22. b3
Ba6 23. Bb6 Bc8 24. Ke3 Ra6 25. Bc5 Kc7 26. Kd4 Bd7 27. Rhe1 h5 28. Re5 g6 29.
Rg5 Rg8 30. Ke5 Be8 31. Re1 Ra8 32. Kf6 Bd7 33. g3 Rae8 34. Ree5 Rh8 35. Rxg6
Rh7 36. Rg7 Reh8 37. Rxh7 Rxh7 38. Kg6 Rh8 {# While there's life...} 39. Kg7 {!
} (39. Rxh5 Be8+) 39... Rd8 40. Rxh5 Be8 {White needs to be sure of his ground
here, as he has an alternative plan of advancing the h-pawn.} 41. Rh7 Rd7+ 42.
Kh6 Rxh7+ 43. Kxh7 {How many moves will it take White to Queen a Pawn? How
many for Black?} Bh5 44. h4 Bd1 45. c3 Bxb3 46. g4 Kd7 47. g5 e5 48. f5 Bxa4
49. f6 {1-0 bernstein-meises} 1-0

[Event "Top 10 endgames: "]
[Site "model ending: rooks & minors "]
[Date "1971.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Fischer"]
[Black "Petrosian"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "B42"]
[Annotator "R7"]
[PlyCount "69"]
[EventDate "1971.??.??"]

1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 e6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 a6 5. Bd3 Nc6 6. Nxc6 bxc6 7. O-O d5 8.
c4 Nf6 9. cxd5 cxd5 10. exd5 exd5 {# The IQP is often compensated by free
development, but Black actually is well behind in development.} 11. Nc3 Be7 12.
Qa4+ Qd7 13. Re1 Qxa4 14. Nxa4 {# A complex endgame has arisen, where Black is
also striggling to mobilise.} Be6 15. Be3 O-O 16. Bc5 {# exhanging the
opponent's better bishop cf. <a href = "canonidx.html#strategy">strategy</a>
section on the IQP} Rfe8 17. Bxe7 Rxe7 18. b4 Kf8 19. Nc5 Bc8 20. f3 {#
Black's problems persist: how can he mobilise the Q-side?} Rea7 (20... Nd7 21.
Nb3 Ne5 22. Bf1 Bd7 23. Rad1 {which is awkward}) (20... Bd7 21. Nxd7+ {with a
B for N advantage}) 21. Re5 Bd7 22. Nxd7+ Rxd7 23. Rc1 Rd6 24. Rc7 Nd7 25. Re2
{Black mobilises his King's-side pawns to try and restrict the White pieces.}
g6 26. Kf2 h5 27. f4 h4 28. Kf3 f5 29. Ke3 d4+ 30. Kd2 Nb6 31. Ree7 {# The
final phase.} Nd5 32. Rf7+ Ke8 33. Rb7 Nxf4 34. Bc4 {1-0} h3 35. Rg7 {and the
mate threats decide.} 1-0

[Event "a rook/knight ending: two weak"]
[Site "a rook/knight ending: two wea"]
[Date "1921.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Lasker, Emanuel"]
[Black "Capablanca, Jose (Havana m10)"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D61"]
[PlyCount "136"]
[EventDate "1921.??.??"]

1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. Bg5 Be7 5. e3 O-O 6. Nf3 Nbd7 7. Qc2 c5 8. Rd1
Qa5 9. Bd3 h6 10. Bh4 cxd4 11. exd4 dxc4 12. Bxc4 Nb6 13. Bb3 Bd7 14. O-O Rac8
15. Ne5 Bb5 16. Rfe1 Nbd5 17. Bxd5 Nxd5 18. Bxe7 Nxe7 19. Qb3 Bc6 20. Nxc6 bxc6
21. Re5 Qb6 22. Qc2 Rfd8 {# There are two isolated pawns: which is weaker?} 23.
Ne2 Rd5 24. Rxd5 cxd5 {# Now there is only one. It is not exposed on a
half-open file, so can White defend?} 25. Qd2 Nf5 26. b3 h5 27. h3 h4 {a
typical preparatory probe} 28. Qd3 Rc6 29. Kf1 g6 30. Qb1 Qb4 {# Black's
pressure on the d-pawn cannot be increased. So Black opens up a new point of
attack.} 31. Kg1 a5 {Lasker said when he saw this that he was lost.} 32. Qb2 a4
33. Qd2 Qxd2 34. Rxd2 axb3 35. axb3 Rb6 36. Rd3 Ra6 37. g4 hxg3 38. fxg3 Ra2
39. Nc3 Rc2 40. Nd1 Ne7 41. Nc3 Rc1+ 42. Kf2 Nc6 43. Nd1 Rb1 {# Black has his
two points of attack.} 44. Ke2 {I think not really a blunder, more a desire
for clarity.} (44. Ne3 Na5 {picks up the b-pawn anyhow}) 44... Rxb3 45. Ke3 Rb4
46. Nc3 Ne7 47. Ne2 Nf5+ 48. Kf2 {# White still has two points to defend.} g5
49. g4 Nd6 50. Ng1 Ne4+ 51. Kf1 Rb1+ 52. Kg2 Rb2+ 53. Kf1 Rf2+ 54. Ke1 Ra2 55.
Kf1 Kg7 56. Re3 Kg6 57. Rd3 f6 58. Re3 Kf7 59. Rd3 Ke7 60. Re3 Kd6 61. Rd3 Rf2+
62. Ke1 Rg2 63. Kf1 Ra2 {# Both sides are repeating moves: Capablanca because
he can, Lasker because he has to!} 64. Re3 e5 {the final push: Black creates a
passed pawn} 65. Rd3 exd4 66. Rxd4 Kc5 67. Rd1 d4 68. Rc1+ Kd5 {# poor White
can do nothing} 0-1

[Event "a rook ending: two weaknesses"]
[Site "a rook ending: two weaknesses"]
[Date "1975.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Hug"]
[Black "Barle"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "C50"]
[Annotator "(Pula izt)"]
[PlyCount "101"]
[EventDate "1975.??.??"]

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Bc5 4. Nc3 Nf6 5. d3 d6 6. Bg5 Na5 7. Bb3 Nxb3 8.
axb3 Be6 9. Na4 {#} h6 (9... Bb6 10. Nxb6 axb6 {or 10...cxb6; 11.d4! with a
superior pawn structure} 11. Rxa8 Qxa8 12. Bxf6 gxf6 13. Nh4 {Pritchett}) 10.
Bh4 Bg4 (10... g5 11. Bg3 Nd7 12. Nxc5 Nxc5 13. b4 Nd7 14. d4) 11. Nxc5 dxc5
12. h3 Bxf3 13. Qxf3 Qd6 14. Bxf6 Qxf6 15. Qxf6 gxf6 {#0/0 Here we have the
doubled f-pawns again. White can start an immediate attack on them with O-O
and f2-f4} 16. Ra5 $1 {accurate: forces a permanent weakness on a7. Black must
divert his King to the Q-side when a shift to the f-file catches him
wrong-footed. Black is probably already lost.} (16. O-O Ke7 17. f4 h5 18. Rf2
Rh7 19. Raf1 {and Black can defend the one weakness on the f-file.}) 16... b6
17. Ra6 Kd7 18. O-O Kc6 {#} 19. f4 Kb7 20. Raa1 Rh7 21. fxe5 fxe5 22. Rf6 {
White now wins a pawn while Black struggles for counterplay.} a5 23. Rf5 Re8
24. Raf1 Re7 25. Rh5 Re6 26. Rhf5 Re7 27. g4 Kc6 28. Rf6+ Kb5 29. R1f5 a4 30.
bxa4+ Kxa4 31. Rh5 c4 32. dxc4 Kb4 33. Rhxh6 Rxh6 34. Rxh6 Rd7 35. Rf6 Kxc4 36.
Kf2 Rd2+ 37. Ke3 {#} Rh2 (37... Rxc2 {doesn't help, e.g.} 38. Rxf7 c5 39. Rf2
Rxf2 40. Kxf2 Kb3) 38. Rc6+ Kb5 39. Rxc7 Rxh3+ 40. Kf2 Rh2+ 41. Kg3 Re2 42. Kf3
Re1 43. Re7 f6 44. g5 fxg5 45. Rxe5+ Kc4 46. Rxg5 Rf1+ 47. Ke2 Rb1 48. b3+ Kc3
49. Rb5 Rc1 50. Rxb6 Rxc2+ 51. Ke3 1-0

[Event "minority attack in the Sicilia"]
[Site "minority attack in the Sicili"]
[Date "1996.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Vogt"]
[Black "Andersson"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "B84"]
[Annotator "Stean"]
[PlyCount "82"]
[EventDate "1996.??.??"]

1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 {This is nearly always Black's
fourth move in the Sicilian, to force the N on b1 in front of the c-pawn. Left
alone, White may play c2-c4, stopping counterplay with d7-d5 or b7-b5, and
removing danger on the c-file.} 5. Nc3 e6 6. Be2 a6 7. f4 Qc7 8. O-O Be7 9. Kh1
Nc6 10. Be3 Nxd4 11. Qxd4 O-O 12. Rad1 b5 {Already making use of the minority.
The move b7-b5 is sometimes a way of threatening the e-pawn, but more often
keeps the c-pawn backward on an open file.} 13. e5 {!?} dxe5 14. Qxe5 Qb8 {!}
15. Qxb8 Rxb8 16. Ba7 Ra8 17. Bb6 Bb7 18. a3 Rfc8 {# ! Chess magazines are
full of quick White kills against the Sicilian. Why do players bother with it,
then? Because the longer games where the attack founders and Black wins the
endgame are too long for magazines. Watch...} 19. Ba5 g6 20. h3 {?} h5 21. Bf3
Bxf3 22. Rxf3 h4 {#0/0 Now White has a weakness on g2 as well as c2.} 23. Rd2
Rc4 24. b3 Rc6 25. a4 b4 26. Ne2 Rac8 27. c4 bxc3 28. Rxc3 {The weakness has
been replaced by one on b3.} Nd5 29. Rxc6 Rxc6 30. Rb2 Bf6 31. Ra2 Rc8 32. Bd2
(32. b4 Rb8) 32... Rb8 33. Nc1 Nb4 34. Bxb4 Rxb4 35. Rf2 {The risks of the
h2-h3 move is now clear.} Be7 36. Rf3 {#} Bd6 37. Ne2 Re4 38. Rd3 (38. Rf2 Bc5)
38... Bc5 39. Rc3 Bf2 40. Rc2 Kg7 41. Ng1 Rxf4 {....0-1 vogt-andersson 1978}
1-0

[Event "endgame technique"]
[Site "endgame technique"]
[Date "1977.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Calvo"]
[Black "Anderssen"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "B15"]
[Annotator "(Copenhagen)"]
[PlyCount "148"]
[EventDate "1977.??.??"]

1. e4 c6 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Nf6 5. Nxf6+ exf6 6. Bc4 Qe7+ 7. Qe2 Bg4
8. Qxe7+ Bxe7 9. Bd2 O-O 10. Ne2 Nd7 11. O-O Nb6 12. Bd3 Rfd8 {#0/0 By this
stage Andersson had used up 1 1/2 hours on his clock, obviously trying very
hard to find the most accurate moves, and already he is getting some pressure
down the Queen's file. Calvo, on the other hand, was playing quickly and
looking rather bored.} 13. Rfe1 Bf8 14. c3 c5 15. Be3 Nd5 16. Ng3 Rac8 17. Be4
Nxe3 $5 18. fxe3 b5 19. d5 $5 Bd7 20. Bc2 c4 21. e4 Re8 22. Rf1 Re5 23. Rad1
Bc5+ 24. Kh1 Kf8 25. h3 Rce8 26. b4 Bd6 27. Rf3 {#0/0 else ...f5 /\ ...Re3} h5
28. Rdf1 Ke7 29. Ne2 a5 30. a3 Ra8 31. Nd4 Kd8 32. Rg3 Bf8 33. Nf3 Re8 {#} 34.
e5 $5 fxe5 35. Ng5 f6 36. Nh7 axb4 37. axb4 Ra2 $1 38. Bg6 h4 39. Bxe8 (39.
Rgf3 Bd6 40. Bxe8 Bxe8 41. Re1 Ke7 42. Rf5 Bg6 43. Rf4) 39... Kxe8 40. Rg6 Kf7
{#} 41. Nxf6 (41. Nxf8 Kxf8 42. Rg5 Kg8 43. Rh5 Rd2 $44) 41... Kxg6 42. Nxd7
Bd6 43. Nc5 Rd2 44. Ne4 Rxd5 {#} 45. Kg1 Be7 46. Kf2 Kf5 47. Ke3+ Ke6 48. Ke2
Rd3 49. Rf3 {# Black cannot exchange Rooks now because the Knight is immovable.
} Rd8 50. Rf1 Ra8 51. Rd1 Ra3 52. Rb1 Kf5 53. Ke3 Rb3 {#} 54. Rf1+ Ke6 55. Kf2
g6 56. Re1 Kf5 57. Re2 Ra3 58. g3 Ra1 59. Kf3 Rf1+ 60. Kg2 Rd1 61. g4+ Ke6 {#0/
0 Black must have it in mind to dislodge the Knight by ...Rf4 and . ..Kd5. The
White King may come to e3 but then Black also has threats against the h-pawn
and can drop the Bishop to f8 and then play up to h6 with check, nudging the
King on.} 62. Rd2 $2 {Sheer impatience, this looks like. "No doubt White could
have defended slightly more accurately during the last few moves, but in a
position like this he is bound to go wrong sooner or later, regardless of
whether it was drawn theoretically." -- WEBB} Rxd2+ 63. Nxd2 Kd5 64. Kf3 {#}
Bxb4 65. cxb4 c3 66. Nb3 Kc4 67. Nc1 Kxb4 68. Ke2 Ka3 69. Kd1 Kb2 70. Nd3+ Kb1
71. Nb4 e4 72. Nc2 e3 73. Nd4 (73. Nxe3 b4 74. Nc2 b3 $19) 73... b4 74. g5 Kb2
{# Zugzwang} 0-1

[Event "accumulation theory"]
[Site "accumulation theory"]
[Date "1882.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Steinitz"]
[Black "Blackburne"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "C29"]
[Annotator "Dubois"]
[PlyCount "111"]
[EventDate "1882.??.??"]

1. e4 e5 2. Nc3 Nf6 3. f4 d5 4. d3 dxe4 5. fxe5 Ng4 6. Nxe4 Nc6 7. c3 Qd5 8.
Qb3 Qxb3 9. axb3 Ngxe5 10. d4 Ng6 11. Bc4 {# White has emerged from the
opening with an advantage in this queenless middle-game. The Queens are off,
but the number of other pieces and the character of the play is more like a
middle game.} Be7 12. Nf3 h6 13. b4 O-O 14. O-O Bf5 15. Nfg5 {#0/0 ! A litt le
tactic (Rxf5) to keep a positional advantage - in this case, the fine position
of the Ne4.} Bxe4 16. Nxe4 {#0/0 Black has conceded the two bishops. White's
doubled b-pawns cannot be attacked and cannot therefore be considered weak -
on the contrary, together with the Bc4 and the open a-file, they give White
the advantage on the Q-side.} Nd8 17. b5 Re8 18. Ng3 Bf8 19. Nf5 Ne7 20. Ne3
Ne6 21. Ng4 Ng6 22. Bd5 Nd8 {#} 23. Bxh6 {"Tactics fl ow from a superior
position" - Fischer. White wins a pawn. But instead of trying now to swap into
a winning endgame, he keeps his two bishops & well-placed rooks moving forward,
so when exchanges come he wins quickly.} c6 24. bxc6 bxc6 25. Bc4 Re7 26. Bg5
Rd7 27. h4 Be7 {#} 28. h5 {White works with these little tactics all the time,
not to win material, but to win positional advantages.} Nf8 {White's tactic
has resulted in another Black retreat.} 29. Be3 Bd6 30. b4 {# White has the
advantage and the initiative on both sides of the board. Black has no rest,
and the poor knights hop about in agitation.} Nde6 31. Ra6 Rc8 32. h6 Nh7 33.
hxg7 Kxg7 {# Black's pawns are split, his pieces awkward. There is still no
need to swap off in order to win the ending.} 34. Bh6+ Kg8 35. Bd3 Rcc7 36. Bd2
{#0/0 Idea Bxh7 and Nf6+} Nef8 37. Nh6+ Kh8 38. Be4 Re7 39. Bxc6 Re2 40. Nf5
Rxd2 41. Nxd6 Ng5 42. Re1 Nge6 43. Rf1 Nd8 44. b5 Rd3 45. Rf5 Nfe6 46. Ne4 Ng7
47. Rf6 Kg8 48. Rh6 Nge6 49. d5 Nf4 50. Rh4 {# White's pressure on the
position is such that Black will even help the pawns forward if it will free
the game a little. We do now get an end-game type of position, where the play
is concerned with passed pawns.} Nxc6 51. Nf6+ Kf8 52. Rxc6 Rxc6 53. bxc6 Ng6
54. c7 Rxc3 55. d6 Ne5 56. Re4 {# A complete crush against a dangerous
opponent.} 1-0

[Event "First fantasy"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "????.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Botvinnik"]
[Black "Kan"]
[Result "*"]
[Annotator "Silman"]
[SetUp "1"]
[FEN "2br2k1/5pp1/1p3q1p/2pBpP2/2P1P3/P2Q3P/6P1/3R2K1 w - - 0 25"]
[PlyCount "0"]

{#}  *

[Event "Third fantasy"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "????.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Botvinnik"]
[Black "Kan"]
[Result "*"]
[Annotator "Silman"]
[SetUp "1"]
[FEN "2br2k1/5pp1/1p3q1p/2pBpP2/2P1P1PP/P5Q1/8/5RK1 w - - 0 1"]
[PlyCount "0"]

{#}  *

[Event "Fourth fantasy"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "????.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Botvinnik"]
[Black "Kan"]
[Result "*"]
[Annotator "Silman"]
[SetUp "1"]
[FEN "2b3k1/Q4pp1/1p1r1q1p/2pBpP2/2P1P3/P6P/6P1/1R4K1 w - - 0 1"]
[PlyCount "7"]

{#} 1. a4 Kh7 2. a5 bxa5 3. Qxa5 Ra6 4. Qxc5 *

[Event "Second fantasy"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "????.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Botvinnik"]
[Black "Kan"]
[Result "*"]
[Annotator "Silman"]
[SetUp "1"]
[FEN "2br2k1/5pp1/1p3q1p/2pBpP2/2P1P1R1/P5QP/6P1/6K1 w - - 0 1"]
[PlyCount "0"]

{#}  *

[Event "model ending: passed pawns mus"]
[Site "model ending: passed pawns mu"]
[Date "1960.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Fischer, RJ."]
[Black "Berliner"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "B03"]
[Annotator "Chernev"]
[PlyCount "71"]
[EventDate "1960.??.??"]

1. e4 Nf6 2. e5 Nd5 3. d4 d6 4. c4 Nb6 5. exd6 cxd6 6. Nc3 g6 7. Bd3 Bg7 8.
Nge2 Nc6 9. Be3 O-O 10. O-O e5 11. d5 Ne7 12. b3 Nd7 13. Ne4 Nf5 14. Bg5 f6 15.
Bd2 Nc5 16. Nxc5 dxc5 {# White has a passed pawn. Usually this is an endgame
theme, but here we see it throughout a middlegame with Queens.} 17. Bxf5 Bxf5
18. f4 exf4 19. Nxf4 Qd6 {# not the best blockader, and the other potential
blockaders are quickly exchanged.} 20. Nh5 {It's not a very good bishop, but
once it is exchanged White's own dark-squared bishop will have no opposition
in its prosecution of the advance of the d-pawn} Rae8 21. Nxg7 Kxg7 22. Bf4 Qd7
23. Qd2 Rf7 24. Bh6+ Kg8 25. Rae1 Rfe7 26. Rxe7 Qxe7 27. h3 Qe4 28. Qf2 Qe7 29.
g4 Bd3 30. Rd1 Be4 31. d6 Qe5 32. Bf4 Qc3 33. d7 Rd8 34. Qe2 Qf3 (34... Qxh3
35. Qxe4 Qxg4+ 36. Kf2 {(threat Qe8+)}) 35. Qxf3 Bxf3 36. Bc7 {# simple as that
} 1-0

[Event "rook ending: seventh rank "]
[Site "rook ending: seventh rank (ne"]
[Date "1924.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Capablanca, JR."]
[Black "Tartakower, SG."]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "A80"]
[PlyCount "103"]
[EventDate "1924.??.??"]

1. d4 f5 2. Nf3 e6 3. c4 Nf6 4. Bg5 Be7 5. Nc3 O-O 6. e3 b6 7. Bd3 Bb7 8. O-O
Qe8 9. Qe2 Ne4 10. Bxe7 Nxc3 11. bxc3 Qxe7 12. a4 Bxf3 13. Qxf3 Nc6 14. Rfb1
Rae8 15. Qh3 Rf6 16. f4 Na5 17. Qf3 d6 18. Re1 Qd7 19. e4 fxe4 20. Qxe4 g6 21.
g3 Kf8 22. Kg2 Rf7 (22... Qc6 23. Qxc6 Nxc6 24. c5 Re7) 23. h4 d5 24. cxd5 exd5
25. Qxe8+ Qxe8 26. Rxe8+ Kxe8 27. h5 Rf6 (27... gxh5 28. Rh1 Kf8 29. Rxh5 Kg8
30. Rxd5) 28. hxg6 hxg6 29. Rh1 Kf8 (29... Ke7 30. Rh7+ Rf7 {else 31.Rg7} 31.
Bxg6) 30. Rh7 {# rook on the seventh} Rc6 31. g4 (31. Rd7 {?} Nc4 32. Rxd5 Ne3+
) 31... Nc4 32. g5 Ne3+ 33. Kf3 {#} Nf5 (33... Nd1 {this counterattack fails,
because of White's strong King and K-side pawns} 34. Rh6 Kg7 35. f5 Nxc3 36.
Kf4 Ne4 37. Bxe4 dxe4 38. f6+ Rxf6+ 39. gxf6+ Kxh6 40. Kxe4 Kh7 41. Kd5 Kg8 42.
Kc6 g5 43. Kxc7 g4 44. d5 g3 45. d6 g2 46. d7 g1=Q 47. d8=Q+ Kh7 48. Qe7+ Kh6
49. Qg7+ Qxg7+ 50. fxg7 Kxg7 51. Kb7 Kf7 52. Kxa7 Ke7 53. Kxb6 Kd7 54. Kb7) 34.
Bxf5 gxf5 35. Kg3 Rxc3+ 36. Kh4 Rf3 37. g6 Rxf4+ 38. Kg5 Re4 {#} 39. Kf6 {
using the f-pawn as cover} Kg8 40. Rg7+ Kh8 41. Rxc7 Re8 42. Kxf5 Re4 43. Kf6
Rf4+ 44. Ke5 Rg4 45. g7+ {#} Kg8 (45... Rxg7 46. Rxg7 Kxg7 47. Kxd5 Kf7 48. Kd6
{!} Ke8 49. Kc7 Ke7 50. d5) 46. Rxa7 Rg1 47. Kxd5 Rc1 48. Kd6 Rc2 49. d5 Rc1
50. Rc7 Ra1 51. Kc6 Rxa4 52. d6 {#} (52. d6 {! by declining the Kxb6 capture
White's K gets shelter} Rd4 53. d7 Rc4+ 54. Kb7 Rd4 55. Kc8) 1-0

[Event "New York m"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "1909.??.??"]
[Round "23"]
[White "Marshall, Frank"]
[Black "Capablanca, Jose"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "D33"]
[PlyCount "98"]
[EventDate "1909.??.??"]

1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 c5 4. cxd5 exd5 5. Nf3 Nc6 6. g3 Be6 7. Bg2 Be7 8. O-O
Nf6 9. Bg5 Ne4 10. Bxe7 Qxe7 11. Ne5 Nxd4 12. Nxe4 dxe4 13. e3 Nf3+ 14. Nxf3
exf3 15. Qxf3 O-O 16. Rac1 Rab8 17. Qe4 Qc7 18. Rc3 b5 19. a3 c4 20. Bf3 Rfd8
21. Rd1 Rxd1+ 22. Bxd1 Rd8 23. Bf3 g6 24. Qc6 Qe5 25. Qe4 Qxe4 26. Bxe4 Rd1+
27. Kg2 a5 28. Rc2 b4 29. axb4 axb4 30. Bf3 Rb1 31. Be2 b3 32. Rd2 Rc1 33. Bd1
c3 34. bxc3 b2 35. Rxb2 Rxd1 36. Rc2 Bf5 37. Rb2 Rc1 38. Rb3 Be4+ 39. Kh3 Rc2
40. f4 h5 41. g4 hxg4+ 42. Kxg4 Rxh2 43. Rb4 f5+ 44. Kg3 Re2 45. Rc4 Rxe3+ 46.
Kh4 Kg7 47. Rc7+ Kf6 48. Rd7 Bg2 49. Rd6+ Kg7 0-1

[Event "Schilde op U18 6th"]
[Site "Schilde"]
[Date "1970.07.25"]
[Round "9"]
[White "Petrosian, Arshak B"]
[Black "Hazai, Laszlo"]
[Result "1/2-1/2"]
[ECO "E80"]
[PlyCount "110"]
[EventDate "1970.07.??"]

1. c4 g6 2. Nc3 Bg7 3. d4 Nf6 4. e4 d6 5. f3 e5 6. d5 Na6 7. Be3 Nh5 8. Qd2
Qh4+ 9. Bf2 Qe7 10. O-O-O O-O 11. Be3 f5 12. Bd3 f4 13. Bf2 Bf6 14. Nge2 Bh4
15. Bg1 Bd7 16. Kb1 b6 17. Nc1 Nc5 18. Bc2 a5 19. Bxc5 bxc5 20. Ba4 Bxa4 21.
Nxa4 Rfb8 22. Qc2 Kh8 23. Rd3 Rb4 24. Ra3 Qe8 25. Nd3 g5 26. h3 Nf6 27. Rc1 Kg7
28. b3 Nd7 29. Qd2 Rb7 30. Ndb2 Nb6 31. Ka1 h5 32. Nd1 Nxa4 33. Rxa4 Rb4 34.
Nc3 Qc8 35. Nb5 Bg3 36. Qe2 Kf6 37. Rb1 Ke7 38. a3 Rxa4 39. bxa4 Kd8 40. Nc3
Rb8 41. Rb5 Rxb5 42. axb5 Qa8 43. Na4 Qa7 44. Ka2 Kc8 45. Qb2 Qb6 $1 46. Nxb6+
cxb6 47. h4 gxh4 48. Qd2 h3 49. gxh3 h4 50. Kb3 Kb7 51. Ka4 Ka7 52. Qg2 Kb7 53.
Qb2 Ka7 54. Qc2 Kb7 55. Qc3 Ka7 1/2-1/2

[Event "Hastings"]
[Site "Hastings"]
[Date "1895.??.??"]
[Round "21"]
[White "Pillsbury, Harry Nelson"]
[Black "Gunsberg, Isidor"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "D94"]
[PlyCount "79"]
[EventDate "1895.08.05"]

1. d4 d5 2. c4 c6 3. e3 g6 4. Nc3 Bg7 5. Nf3 Nf6 6. Bd3 O-O 7. Ne5 dxc4 8. Bxc4
Nd5 9. f4 Be6 10. Qb3 b5 11. Bxd5 Bxd5 12. Nxd5 Qxd5 13. Qxd5 cxd5 14. Nd3 Nd7
15. Bd2 Rfc8 16. Ke2 e6 17. Rhc1 Bf8 18. Rxc8 Rxc8 19. Rc1 Rxc1 20. Bxc1 Bd6
21. Bd2 Kf8 22. Bb4 Ke7 {"The game was played in the last round. Pillsbury was
leading the field by half a point. He had assumed that a draw would be enough,
and the game therefore opened with the relatively placid Queen's Gambit
Declined. Pieces were rapidly traded off the board, when Pillsbury realized
that Chigorin was winning his game and therefore he would have to win to take
clear first. What followed from this apparently drawn position was pure magic,
a delightful display of genius."} 23. Bc5 a6 24. b4 f6 25. g4 Bxc5 $2 26. bxc5
Nb8 {#} 27. f5 $1 g5 (27... Nc6 28. fxe6 Kxe6 29. Nf4+ Kf7 30. Nxd5) (27...
exf5 28. gxf5 g5 29. Nb4) (27... gxf5 28. gxf5 exf5 29. Nf4) 28. Nb4 $1 a5 (
28... h6 29. fxe6 Kxe6 30. c6 Kd6 31. c7 Kxc7 32. Nxd5+ Kd6 33. Nxf6 Nc6 34.
Ng8) 29. c6 $1 Kd6 30. fxe6 $1 Nxc6 (30... axb4 31. e7 Kxe7 32. c7) 31. Nxc6
Kxc6 32. e4 $1 dxe4 33. d5+ $1 Kd6 34. Ke3 b4 (34... f5 35. gxf5 b4 36. f6 a4
37. f7 Ke7 38. d6+ Kf8 39. d7 Ke7 40. f8=Q+) 35. Kxe4 a4 36. Kd4 h5 $2 (36...
Ke7 37. Kc4 b3 38. axb3 a3 39. Kc3 f5 40. gxf5 h5 41. b4 $1 a2 42. Kb2 a1=Q+
43. Kxa1 g4 44. b5 h4 45. b6 g3 46. hxg3 hxg3 47. d6+ $1 Kxd6 48. b7 Kc7 49. e7
g2 50. b8=Q+ Kxb8 51. e8=Q+) 37. gxh5 a3 38. Kc4 (38. h6 $2 b3 39. h7 bxa2)
38... f5 39. h6 f4 40. h7 1-0

Topic: 

Class: 

Legacy nid: 

187

Attached file(s):